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E.D. dine 







to the 

Children of the Fourth Grade 
The Inheritors of the Past 


The Citizens of the Future 


S'otith $Und Vocational School 



Life Before the Coming of the White Man, The Mound Builders, In- 
dian Stories, Miamis, Pottawattomies, Iroquois. 

Missionaries and Explorers, Father Marquette, Cavelier de LaSalle. 


Coming of the White Men, Fur Traders and Settlers: Pierre Na- 
varre, Alexis Coquillard, Lathrop M. Taylor, O-Sah la mo-nee, 
Henry M. Stull, Horatio Chapin, Judge Thomas Stan- 
field, Almond Bugbee, Daniel Greene. 


Location of South Bend and Relation to Surrounding Country: To- 
pography, Soil and Products. 


Transportation: River, Ferries, Canals, Indian Trails, Michigan 

Road, Lincoln Highway, Bridges, The First Railroad, 

Street Railway and Interurbans. 

Telegraph, Telephone. 

The Goldseekers and the Rush to California. 


Pioneer Stories: Story of Johnny Appleseed, Story of Black Hawk 
Raid, Spelling School at Bertram!. 



Growth of the Press: The First Newspapers, St. Joseph Valley Reg- 
ister, Life of Schuyler Colfax, South Bend Tribune, 
South Bend News-Times. 

South Bend in Time of War: Civil, Spanish-American, World. 


South Bend's Water Supply: In the Early Days, Growth of the Vol- 
unteer Fire Department, Story of the Raising of the 
Standpipe, Story of the Bob-tailed Cow, South 
Bend Fire Department 1920. 

History of the Forms of Government in South Bend. 


Some of the Industries of South Bend and Men Who Made Them: 

Studebaker Corporation, Oliver Chilled Plow Works, Birdsell 

Manufacturing Company, The Singer Sewing Machine 

Company, O'Brien Varnish Works, South Bend 

Toy Factory, South Bend Watch Company. 


Educational Institutions : Growth of the Public Schools, The 

County Seminary, First Public School, Vocational School, Notre 

Dame University, St. Mary's Academy, Public Library. 


City Parks: Howard, Leeper, Studebaker, Pottowatomie, Rum 

Village, LaSalle, Kaley, Coquillard, Shetterley, Riverside, 

Ravinia, Kreighbaum, Springbrook Park. 




This little book has been compiled to meet the 
needs of the teachers of local history in our pub- 
lic schools. 

We wish to acknowledge indebtedness for the 
material used from various books and records of 
the Public Library, also for helpful suggestions 
from many citizens. 

It is the editor's aim to acquaint our readers 
with the past history of our city and thereby help 
them to appreciate the struggles of our forefath- 
ers in laying the foundation of the city of South 
Bend. We wish them to know the men and the 
industries that have made our city "World 

E. J. B. 
South Bend, Ind., 1920. 

What Makes a City Great? 

"What makes a city great? Huge piles of stone 
Heaped heavenward? Vast multitudes who dwell 
Within wide circling walls? Palace and throne 
And riches past the count of man to tell 
And wide domain? Nay these the empty husk! 
True honor dwells where noble deeds are done 
And great men rise whose names athwart the dusk 
Of misty centuries gleam like the sun. 
In Athens, Sparta, Florence, 'twas the soul 
That was the city's bright immortal part, 
The splendor of the spirit was their goal, 
Their jewel the unconquerable heart! 
So may the city that we love be great! 
Till every stone shall be articulate." 


1820 First White Man Navarre. 

1820 First Trading Post. 

1824 First White Woman Frances Comparet Coquillard. 

1829 First Post Office Southold Allen County. 

1830 First Postmaster L. M. Taylor. 

1831 First Jail Walls and floor of white oak, hewn one foot square. 

1831 First Practicing lawyer Elisha Egbert. 

1831 First Keel boat for freighting on the St. Joseph. 

1831 First Drygoods merchant Horatio Chapin. 

1831 First Log grade school (not public). 

1831 First Hotel American built by Peter Johnson. 

1831 First Newspaper The Western Pioneer and St. Joseph In- 

1831 First County Court House. 

1834 First Church organized Presbyterian. 

1835 First Church built, Methodist N. B. Griffith Minister. 

1835 First Incorporation of South Bend. 

1836 First White Child Born J. W. Camper and still living. 

1841 First Deputy County Auditor Schuyler Colfax. 

1843 First Congressman Hon. Samuel C. Sample. 

1844 First Dam. 

1847 First Bridge Washington Street. 

1848 First Telegraph Mrs. J. B. Reynolds received the first 

1851 First Railroad New York Central. 

1855 First Fire Department Volunteer. 

1861 First To give his life in Civil War John Auten. 

1861 First Public School old Jefferson Now Administration 

1865 First Mayor William G. George. 

1866 First School Board. 

1867 First Historical Society organized. 

1873 First Daily Newspaper Tribune. 

1880 First Telephone Exchange. 

1880 First Artesian Well sunk. 

1882 First Trolley Street Car System in United States. 

1889 First Citv Park Howard. 



The Mound Builders were a mysterious race of people who in- 
habited this part of the state centuries and centuries ago. 

This mysterious race had built their homes on high points of 
land. Often times, they shaped the earthen mound to resemble huge 
serpents, elephants, or other animals. 

The mounds had various uses. Sometimes they were built for 
military defense; sometimes they were sacred enclosures; and some- 
times burial places. 

The masonry was regular and strong and laid without mortar. 
Some constructed their homes of wood, but these have long since 
disappeared. Ancient trees have grown on the site of these homes. 
This helps to give us some idea as to the time that has passed since 
this race of people lived here. 

There were a number of reasons why they built their homes on 
high ground. Can you think of any? First there was better protec- 
tion from the wild, roving bands of enemy Indians. Second, in the 
spring when the floods came in the lowlands, they were high and 
dry. Third, when the lowlands became flooded, the animals took 
refuge on the higher land, thereby giving the inhabitants an abun- 
dance of food. 

They were a peaceful race of people and skilled in the use of 
metals. They understood the tempering of metals, and used the 
finest of copper axes. 

Many relics, utensils and fragments of pottery are preserved 
in the Northern Indiana Historical Society. All of these show them 
to have been a tribe far advanced in civilization. 

For some unknown reason the tribes disappeared. Many believe 
them to have been driven out by the hostile Indians. Their mounds 
are found near Chain Lakes in Warren Township. Their mounds 
are numerous throughout the Mississippi Valley. 



Many, many years ago, the Indians, called the Miamis, paddled 
up the river now known as the St. Joseph, but called by the Indians, 
the River of the Miamis. 

Upon their arrival at a landing place, just north of the city of 
South Bend, they decided to land. Many other Indians had landed 
here and passed on to other hunting grounds, so the path or trail 
was quite distinctly marked. 

The squaws strapped the wigwams and cooking utensils to their 
backs, and many of them carried their papooses. They then marched 
in solemn Indian fashion, following the trail, through patches of 
hazel brush, dogwood, red-bud, and forests of mighty oak. We now 
know this historic trail as the Portage to the Kankakee. (Portage 
Avenue from Pinhook or Riverview Cemetery.) Soon they reached 
a height of land now known as Mount Pleasant, west of the city. 
Here they set about to build a village. 

The squaws set up the wigwams and started to prepare the meal. 
This consisted of Indian corn, and fish, dogflesh, or the meat of the 

But first they must make a fire. Do you know how the Indian 
first made fire? I will tell you. Three men took seats on the 
ground facing each other, with a hard block of wood in front of 
them. One of the Indians had a long stick which he drilled into 
the hard block. He rolled it between his hands as fast as he could 
and when he got tired, the next one would begin without allowing 
the motion to slow up, when he tired, then the third one would 
take it up, and so on until a spark of new fire was seen. They 
quickly caught the spark in a piece of punk or other good kindling 

Later the Indians learned from the missionaries that by rubbing 
flint and steel together, sparks would come much easier. 

But where were the rest of the Indian men? You know the 
squaw does all the hard work in the Indian family, but the man 
hunts and fishes, and protects his family against enemies. Indians 
considered this a fair division of the work. 

Many of the men started for the forests or prairies to hunt the 
buffalo, elk, bear, or wolf. Others have gone to the river to fish for 
the sturgeon and pike. 

Just north of the place where South Bend now stands was the 
famous fishing grounds. Here at a place where the waters were 


shallow, Indians of long ago had placed great white flag stones from 
shore to shore. The Indians in canoes were accustomed to go up 
stream some miles, then come back lashing the water, so as to drive 
the fish before them. Meanwhile other Indians, waiting to spear the 
fish, stationed themselves across this limestone floor, and watched 
for the form of the rolling sturgeon, the swift pickerel, or the quick 
darting pike to be outlined against the white stones. With their 
harpoon-like spears, they killed great boat loads of fish. 


The Pottawattomies of the Miami Confederacy were a peaceful 
tribe, and many of them built permanent homes or huts called wig- 
wams, made of poles stuck in the ground, tied together with pliant 
strips of bark and covered with skins of animals or large pieces of 

They were a hard-working tribe. They tilled the soil and raised 
a great deal of Indian corn or maize. 

The women were always well-clothed, but the men used scarcely 
any covering and were tattooed all over the body. 

The Miamis inhabited all the land west-ward from what is now 
Detroit to Lake Michigan. 

In summer, they hunted and fished. In winter they passed the 
time in games and play, of course hunting and fishing enough to get 
fresh meat, when they tired of the dried venison or buffalo meat. 

The men made their weapons for war and the hunt. These were 
the bow and arrows, spear, tomahawk, or hatchet, and war-club. 
The arrows and spears were pointed with barbed stone; the toma- 
hawk was of stone, fastened to its handle by withes; the war-club 
was of stone, too, sometimes having a handle made of rawhide 
twisted and hardened. 


The Iroquois Indians were warlike and barbarous. They would 
not work in the fields to raise grain. They were great hunters and 
would trade their game to the Miamis for corn. If the Miamis re- 
fused to trade, they would take the corn anyway. 

One time, after having been refused grain by the Miamis, the 
Iroquois decided to attack. They gathered their men, put on their 
war-paint, and started secretly at night. 

They approru-hed the village stealthily, hiding behind trees and 
bushes. With a loud war-whoop they rushed upon the peaceful 


Miamis. Instantly the air was filled with Hying arrows. The war- 
riors surged back and forth with wild whoops, and Indians lay dead 
all around. Both sides had taken many scalps, but still they fought 
on. Just when the fighting was at its fiercest, the Miami chief, 
"Frost on the Leaves," was seen approaching the Iroquois. He held 
in his hand the calumet or peace pipe. His chiefs, Rushing Water, 
Snow on the Mountain, Gray Eagle, Black Crow, Rain in the Face, 
and many more accompanied the Miami chief. 

The Iroquois chief, "Snapping Turtle," with his many warriors 
came forward to meet Frost on the Leaves. He had with him his 
chiefs, Catbird, Black Wolf, and Little New Moon. 

Do you know why Indians have such queer names? I will tell 
you. The Indians believed that the name for the new papoose must 
be whatever sight first met the eyes of the Chief. Aren't you glad 
your name is not chosen that way? 

Frost on the Leaves placed the calumet on a mat on the ground. 
Meanwhile some Indians were busy making a fire, in front of the 
two chiefs. The calumet was lighted, and solemnly passed among 
the chiefs. 

Then the Miami chief arose and made an eloquent speech in 
behalf of his tribe. At the end, he threw two belts upon the ground, 
one of red, and one of white. 

All were silent, awaiting the chief's decision. Finally he picked 
up the white one. At this there was great rejoicing. Each tribe 
built its fire, and circled around it, singing and shouting their war 
whoops, with wild beating on their drums. This they kept up until 
all were exhausted. 

And now, peace having been declared, the two chiefs exchanged 
gifts of grain, dried meat, beads and salt. 

They then retired to their own country and peace reigned for a 

Pottawattomie Park is named for this early tribe. 

Miami Street is named in honor of the Miamis who once lived 



The French Missionaries were the first white men to visit 

These missionaries were pious men, who in early times left 

their homes in civilized countries, came among the savages, and 

worked diligently to convert them to the Christian religion. This 
they found to be a very diflicult task. 

The Indians were satisfied with their religion and did not care 
to make any change. 

Father Marquette came to the new country at a time when the 
Indians of the Lake region were in great need of friends. 

The Iroquois had been successful in over-coming the Hurons and 
destroying both the Missions and their missionaries. 

In the face of all this danger, Father Marquette, accompanied 
by other French explorers, came into these dangerous sections ex- 
pecting to meet martyrs' deaths. 

Many of the Indians were friendly to their party, others were 

Marquette and Joliet explored this lake region, reached the 
Mississippi, sailed down the river for some distance, and satisfied 
themselves that they now knew the course of the great river. They 
then turned back, leaving the Mississippi at the mouth of the Illinois 

Marquctle went over into the Wisconsin country and remained 
there at a mission to regain his health. The following November, 
he remembered his promise to the Illinois Indians that he would 
visit them again and he kept his promise altho still very weak. 

It was through this peaceful valley of the St. Joseph in the month 
of May, 1(575, that Father James Marquette, the Jesuit missionary ex- 
plorer passed, on his way back to St. Ignace. 

The tradition is that his faithful Indians carried his frail bark 
canoe, guided his feeble footsteps across the portage connecting the 


Kankakee with the St. Joseph river, and thence conducted him down 
to the shores of Lake Michigan. 

At the age of thirty-eight, worn out by his labors and exposure, 
he died and was buried in Michigan on the bank of the river that 
bears his name. 

Two years later, his affectionate Indians came down the lake 
in a fleet of canoes and reverently bore his body to the beloved 
mission of St. Ignace, where he w r as finally laid to rest. 

Father Marquette is believed to have been the first white man to 
pass through this valley of the St. Joseph. 

Marquette Avenue is named in memory of him. 

The State of Wisconsin has caused a statute of Marquette to be 
placed in the capital of Washington, thereby proclaiming him to be 
one of the great men of the West. 


While the missionaries were trying to teach the Indians and 
the traders were exchanging beads and trinkets for furs, a fearless 
and enterprising Frenchman, Cavelier de La Salle determined to 
explore the country, and trade with the Indians, on a large scale. 

People were still searching for a shorter water route to China 
and Japan and La Salle was sure that he could reach it by sailing 
down Lake Michigan, up the river of the Miamis (St. Joseph) then 
by portage to the Illinois, and at last down the Mississippi, which he 
had concluded emptied into the Pacific Ocean. Was he right? 

La Salle was well-fitted for this undertaking. He knew that 
there were fierce Indians and wild beasts in this part of America. 
He knew of the various hardships which he would have to undergo. 
Best of all, he could speak several Indian languages. You know the 
Indians do not all speak the same language. 

So one July day in the year 1GCO La Salle started on this peril- 
ous journey to find the mouth of the Mississippi. He went by Lake 
Erie, then across country and reached the Ohio river, but after 
travelling some distance upon it, his men, tired of the hardships they 
had undergone, deserted their leader, and he had to make his way 
back alone through the forests, living on such food as he could find. 

He was not discouraged however, and continued for many years 


to explore the country, trade with the Indians, build forts and trad- 
ing posts and in 1679 he made another attempt. This time he trav- 
elled over the land on which South Bend now stands. 

The landing of La Salle is of great historical interest to South 
Bend. It is located at a point called Pinhook, north of the city and 
within the boundaries of Riverview Cemetery. This is a most pic- 
turesque spot, and the name aptly describes the bend in the river. 
From this landing place it is believed that La Salle and his men 
travelled over the very country where our city now stands. 

The following interesting story is told of his first visit here. 

Coming up the western shore of Lake Michigan he followed the 
south shore until he came to the mouth of the Miami river (St. 
Joseph). At this point, he built a fort and a tiny chapel. On De- 
cember 3, 1679, with thirty men in eight canoes, they paddled up 
the chilly current of the St. Joseph. 

The Indian guide, "White Beaver," landed along the way to get 
game, meaning to rejoin them later. Not having their guide and be- 
cause of the deep snow that covered the ground, the explorers passed 
by the portage without knowing it and paddled on farther up stream. 
About the time they reached the bend in the river where our Miami 
Street is, La Salle realized that he had gone too far. 

He noticed the hills in the distance, and decided to land and 
climb to the top to get his bearings. This he did, but in coming 
back, he had to go around a swamp and made a mistake, going east 
instead of west. He at last reached the river, several miles east of 
the present site of Mishawaka. 

The friar Hennepin and his lieutenant, Tonti, became alarmed 
at the prolonged absence of their leader and sent out a searching 
party, who went up and down the river, calling, but receiving no 

Snow was falling and it was difficult walking for La Salle. All 
at once he saw a fire, and felt sure that he had found his friends. 
But to his great surprise, a lone Indian jumped from his bed of old 
leaves and started to run. La Salle called to him in French, then in 
the different Indian languages that he knew. But the Indian did 
not answer. La Salle then took possession of his warm bed, lay down 
by the fire, and slept undisturbed. 

The next day, he started down stream through the forest in 
search of his friends. He arrived at their camp in the afternoon, 
carrying at his belt two oppossums, which he had killed. 


You may be sure there was great rejoicing by the party at the 
return of their leader. 

They had set up their wigwams, covered in the Indian fashion 
with mats of reed. On account of the cold, they kindled a fire just 
outside, and La Salle and Hennepin, being very tired, rolled them- 
selves in their blankets and went to sleep. In the early morning 
the wigwams caught fire, and the two men narrowly escaped being 

That morning the canoes were drawn up on shore and dividing 
the load among the men, they started on their search for the 

After travelling for a short distance, several of the men wanted 
to turn back, but La Salle pushed on, feeling sure that he would 
reach the Kankakee. 

This he finally did, whereupon they launched their canoes, and 
started on their journey toward the Mississippi. 

La Salle continued to make many trips through this part of the 
country, trading with the Indians and winning their friendship. 


The Iroquois were always making war on the weaker nations 
and La Salle thought that it would be a good idea to have the other 
Indian nations band together with the French and fight the Iroquois. 

A great many tribes were afraid to do this at first but La Salle 
did not give up the idea. 

The Miami village was located just west of South Bend, (though 
there was no city South Bend at that time) at a point near what 
is now called Mt. Pleasant on the Lincoln Highway West and he 
determined to get them to join, as the Miamis were much more pow- 
erful than some of the others. 

He met with them in the month of May, 1681, under the great 
trees, the lakes and the pools of the headwaters of the Kankakee 
glistened in the sunlight. 

First he passed the tobacco, which is regarded as a gift of the 
Great Spirit. The smoking of it was a solemn religious observance. 
Next he passed out great bundles of rich French cloth, saying, 
"These are to cover the graves of your dead." He then gave them 


some well-made garments, saying, "These are for the comfort of 
your dead." This the Indians believed to be a great compliment to 
their dead. 

Their hearts were softened toward La Salle and they told him 
that he should have his answer the next day. 

The Indians held their council and decided to join the French 
and other Indian tribes and fight the common enemy, the Iroquois. 

La Salle's treaty with the Indians is the subject of a beautiful 
painting in the rotunda of the County Court House. It is well worth 
the trip to the Court House to see it. 

La Salle's Landing at the portage is also to be found opposite 
the above picture in the Court House rotunda. 

Many relics and reminders of these early days are to be found 
in the rooms of the St. Joseph Historical Association in the old 
Court House on Lafayette Blvd. 

La Salle continued his explorations in the name of the French 
king, Louis XIV, for twenty-one years, but was finally murdered by 
one of his own men. 

South Bend owes him an enduring memory. He, it was, who 
made our portage famous. He, it was, who crossed the portage in 
pursuit of a great purpose. 

La Salle's name has been perpetuated in our streets, parks, lakes 
and public buildings. 




No fairer spot for a city could well be chosen than the gently 
undulating banks of the St. Joseph river upon which South Bend is 

Here, before any white man ever gazed upon the river's cool, 
green surface, the Indians beached their frail canoes, took them 
upon their backs, and set out across the low and narrow watershed 
to the head waters of the Kankakee. 

Here, in 1820, Pierre Navarre, fascinated by the charms of the 
St. Joseph valley, located and built his log cabin on the north bank 
of the river. He established a post and began trading with the 

The river was then a famous fishing ground, for every year the 
mighty sturgeon came up the river from Lake Michigan. 

Pierre Navarre was an educated French gentleman. He had a 
kind, genial disposition, and was absolutely honest in his dealings. 

He followed a custom common among Frenchmen of those days 
and married a Pottawattomie squaw. He lived very happily with 
his Indian wife and six children in the little log cabin on the river 

This log cabin was moved into Leeper Park a few years ago. 
If you care to see it, you will find it just east of the pumping station. 

In 1840 Mr. Navarre moved west with the Pottawattomies, when 
the government sold their land and forced them to go farther west. 

Later he came back and lived here until his death which oc- 
curred at the home of his daughter, Dec. 27, 1863. His body rests 
in Cedar Grove Cemetery near Notre Dame. 

His name has been perpetuated in the naming of Navarre Place 
and Navarre Street. 



The first citizen of our town and one of the founders was Alexis 
Coquillard. He was born in Detroit in 1795 and came to this trading 
post in 1823 at the age of twenty-eight. The following year he 
bought out the business that had been established by Navarre. 

Coquillard was over six feet tall, and powerfully built. He was 
very business-like and honest. The merchants trusted him for his 
supplies, and the Indians had great confidence in his word of honor 
and honest dealing. 

He came here to carry on the business of the American Fur 
Company. His first trading post was located on Dragoon Trace, 
now East Washington and Lincoln Way East, an old Indian trail 
leading from Fort Wayne to this Indian village. 

Later he built another fur store at what is now the corner of 
Michigan and La Salle Streets. Here he also built a large log house. 

In the spring of 1824, he married the sister of his partner, 
Frances Comparet, a young girl of nineteen. 

Their home became the center of the social and business life 
of the community. 

Coquillard and Taylor (see story of L. M. Taylor) were business 
rivals but they worked together on every enterprise that would 
help build up the town. 

The ferries, the dams, the races, the mills are the result of the 
public spirit, and work of these pioneers. The work of these men 
laid the foundations of South Bend's prosperity and world-wide 
fame as an industrial city. 

In 1840, Coquillard was given the task of removing the Potta- 
\vattomie Indians to Kansas. This he did in a very humane way. 
lie used enough wagons, so that every one was enabled to ride. In 
other cases of removal only the Indian women and children were 
allowed to ride, the men being compelled to walk all the way, many 
of them dying before they reached their destination. 

Coquillard was much loved by all the Indians. He spoke the 
Pottawattomie language, and at one time they would have made him 
chief, if he had consented. 

In January, ISHo, his flouring mill burned. He was looking it 


over, planning the repairs, when he had the misfortune to step on a 
partly burned timber and fell. He died on hour later. 

Many things of interest locally remind us of this pioneer. 
Coquillard Park in the north-east part of the city was given to the 
city by the Coquillard heirs. Coquillard School was named for this 



Lathrop M. Taylor came here in September, 1827, and com- 
menced trading with the Indians representing Hanna and Company. 
His trading post was located on the river at the end of what is now 
East Madison Street. He later moved to the north-west corner of 
Michigan and Washington Sts. where he continued to occupy offices 
until his death. 

Mr. Taylor had learned to speak French, also the Miami tongue, 
and after coming to this post he learned to speak the language of 
the Pottawattomies. 

Coquillard and Taylor made a perfect pair for the new settle- 
ment. Coquillard could neither read nor write. Taylor could read 
and was an excellent writer. 

In 1829, the post office was established. Mr. Taylor was the first 
postmaster. It was called Southhold, Allen County. No one seems 
to know why it was called Southhold. At that time Allen County 
extended all the way across the northern part of the state. 

The next year, 1830, the name was changed to South Bend, St. 
Joseph County. St. Joseph County too, was very large at first. It 
extended over what are now the counties of Marshall, Starke, La- 
porte, Porter and Lake. 

Upon the organization of the county, the Legislature provided 
that the offices of clerk and recorder, as well as clerk of the county 
board might be held by one man. This was very fortunate, as it is 
doubtful, if anyone but Taylor could have filled the offices. 

If you will look over the first records in the County Court 
House, you will find them in the beautiful hand writing of L. M. 
Taylor. He still held the office of Postmaster and managed to keep 
his fur business going. So you see he was a very busy man. 

You would be surprised if you could see the kind of post office 


they had in those days. It was just a tall cupboard, set up in one 
corner of the trading post. This cupboard is still in the possession 
of the heirs of Mr. Taylor. 

Money was almost unknown in those days. They brought the 
skins of animals and other things and traded for things they could 
not raise. Money was used mostly to pay taxes or to get a letter. 

Taylor and Coquillard were the real founders of South Bend. 
They bought land from the government and on March 28, 1831, they 
platted the town. Our wide streets are due to the splendid foresight 
of Mr. Taylor. There were only one hundred twenty-eight people in 
the town at the time it was platted. 

The first County seat was called St. Joseph and was located out 
near Riverview Cemetery, but Taylor and Coquillard later managed 
to get the county seat removed to South Bend. 

They donated the land for the County Court House, the Jeffer- 
son School, (now the Administrative Offices), the Madison School, 
the City Cemetery. 

The ferries, the bridges, the roads, the mill races and mills, the 
shops, and every line of trade or business had their united support. 

Mr. Taylor lived to a good old age, dying August 29, 1892. He 
saw the little town he had helped to found, grow to be one of the 
busiest and most famous little cities of America. 


Osah la mo'nee was a little Indian Princess. She was the 
daughter of Big Chief Little Turtle, of the Miamis. Osah la mo nee 
was the Indian name for blood root. Why do you suppose she had 
that name? 

She was born in the spring time in an Indian village, quite a 
distance from here. She was a dainty little princess, of light com- 
plexion and with long black hair which she wore in two long 
braids down her back. She wore a most gorgeous band, embroid- 
ered in porcupine quills, around her forehead. 

Her dress was made of buck skin, trimmed with brilliantly 
colored beads. 

Her father was beloved by his people, and because of this great 
love for him, they brought her many beautiful gifts of bright beads, 
skins, moccasins, and trinkets of gold and silver. 


One day an Indian came to their village who was skilled in the 
use of metals. With fire to soften the metal and with a crude hammer, 
he hammered out ornaments for the wrist, ankles, hair and ears. 
These the friendly Indians presented to the Princess, Osah la mo'nee. 

A half-breed by the name of Turner came to see Little Turtle, 
the Chief. He noticed the little princess and cast many shy glances 
at her. But she was interested in her beads and many ornaments. 

The half-breed Turner came again and this time he brought 
silver ornaments for the princess. She was older now and took 
more notice of him, and when he asked her to come with him, she 
accepted and placing her hand in his, she left the land of her father, 
and came to the land of the Pottawattomies, where they build their 
wigwam of birch bark. 


An Indian chief named To Rum (called Rum, for short) ruled 
over a little village just south of our city. It has probably been 
called Rum's Village after him. 

Rum Village is a rolling wooded land, with a small creek flow- 
ing through it. How the Indians must have enjoyed the singing 
birds and the beautiful flowers that are found there. 

This land passed from the Indians direct to the Ewing family, 
of whom the city of South Bend purchased the land for a city park 
in 1916. It has been left in its natural state, and is one of th,e 
most beautiful parks owned by the city. 

1812. It was Rum's Village to which Turner brought his Indian 
Princess, and they lived there in peace for many years. 

Turner and his wife had dwelt in this beautiful woodland for 
fifteen years, when L. M. Taylor arrived in the village in 1827. 

Having engaged in the fur trading business, he had many deal- 
ings with the Indians from Rum's Village. 

Turner brought in many pelts to the trading post and often 
his Indian wife came with him. She became very much interested 
in the way the white people lived, and wanted to live more like 
them. So they decided to move into the town. 

There were only a few white women in the village, Mrs. 
Coquillard, Mrs. Stull, Mrs. Taylor, Mrs. Johnson, Mrs. Chapin among 
those best known. Osah la mo'nee noticed their ways of dressing 
and eating. Did she see many silver bracelets on the arms of these 
women? Were the bare ankles covered with silver anklets? Did 


they wear long chains of beads and shells about the neck? Ah! no, 
indeed. When she lived among the Indians she was so proud of the 
great number of arm ornaments which she owned. However she 
decided to give them up and dress like her white neighbors. 

Now she had never eaten with a knife or fork or spoon in all 
her life, but she had seen the white folks eating, and decided she 
must have some spoons. 

One day she came into the trading post of L. M. Taylor, carry- 
ing all of her silver ornaments. 

She had heard that Mr. Taylor expected to make a business trip 
to Detroit, and she asked him to take her pure silver ornaments and 
have them made into spoons. This he did, and Osah la mo'nee was 
the proud possessor of six silver teaspoons and six silver table- 
spoons, each engraved with a "T." 

At the death of the old chief, Little Turtle, the tablespoons were 
given to Mr. Taylor and they are now owned by the descendants of 
the Taylor family. No one seems to know just what happened to 
the teaspoons. 




When Henry M. Stull first came to this part of the state, there 
were merely two trading posts, owned by Coquillard and Taylor, 
just a few houses, and no streets, only Indian trails running 
through the woods, which thickly covered the ground where South 
Bend now stands. 

The mother, father and live children were at first housed in an 
old deserted shanty, which had been used by whites and Indians as 
;i sugar camp. 

The father, having decided to locate here, made the long, tire- 
some trip to Fort Wayne, a government station, to buy land for a 

The mother and children had many things to frighten them 
while the father was away. The savage Indians slinking down the 
trails and wild beasts, in search of food, kept the mother and chil- 
dren in constant fear. At one time the frail shanty was surrounded 
by wild boars, but ;i pack of Indian dogs attacked them and the 
fight was kept up for hours. Many times the beasts hurled them- 


selves against the side of the house, and the mother, fearing that 
the doors would be broken down, threw the children to the roof of 
the house to save them. 

After ten days the father returned, having purchased several 
hundred acres of land for one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre. 

They now set about to build a home. The material was stand- 
ing all about them, and the father with his poor ax and hand saw, 
realized the huge task before him. He cut the trees down and sawed 
them into the right lengths for a one-room round-log house, sixteen 
by eighteen feet. Do you know what a round-log house is? The 
father had no tools to work with, so he had to use the log, just as it 
was cut down. The round logs were laid one on the other, with the 
bark left on them. Not a very beautiful house, was it? However, 
it was the best that could be had at that time, for this pioneer and 
his family. 

The roof and floor were made of puncheon, or split logs. The 
door was made of the same, with wooden hinges, and strong wooden 

The chimney was made of sticks and mud. 

Cooking and baking was done before the open fire-place. Corn 
bread was baked in iron ovens or kettles, also before the open fire. 

Four more children came to the home and now a larger house 
was needed. So a house of hewed logs was built, with sawed boards 
for floors, ceiling and doors. It had three rooms and a sleeping 
loft, and w r as considered a very fine piece of architecture. 

Later, a much finer home was built on South Michigan Road, 
planed boards, shingles and paint being used. 

Here, surrounded by prosperity, peace and happiness, they lived 
for many years. Mr. Stull passed away, followed some years after- 
wards in 1879 by Mrs. Stull. 

It was from this last home that Mary Stull, a daughter, became 
the wife of John Mohler Studebaker. 

This home was later purchased by Joseph Eckman and is occu- 
pied by him and his family. 

Horatio Chapin, a native of Massachusetts w r as born in 1803. 

In 1822, he decided to come west. He stayed in Detroit until 
1831, at which time he decided to come to South Bend, then just a 


settlement of a few hundred people. He rode an Indian pony and 
followed the trail all the way here. 

He was our first drygoods merchant, having brought with him a 
stock of goods. He at once opened a general store on N. Michigan 
Street, near Water Street, now LaSalle Avenue. His business was a 
success from the beginning. 

The first cargo of wheat that was ever shipped down the St. 
Joseph river on its way to Buffalo was sent by Mr. Chapin. Could 
you trace the water route that it travelled? 

Mr. Chapin after many trials and disappointments started the 
first Sunday school and was its superintendent. It was started in the 
room over his store on Water Street. He also was one of the organ- 
izers of the Presbyterian Church in 1834. He has been called the 
"Pioneer of the Sunday School in St. Joseph county." Why? 

Although the town was platted and made the county Seat in 
1831, it was not incorporated as a town until 1835. Horatio Chapin 
was its first president. Does South Bend have a president now? 
What is the name of its chief officer? 

In 1838, the South Bend branch of the State Bank of Indiana 
was established, and Mr. Chapin was selected as its manager and 

In 1867, he helped to found the Historical Society. 
He died in 1871. 

Chapin Park, a residential district in the northwest part of 
the city was a part of the Chapin estate. 

Chapin Street commemorates this pioneer. 


If you go into the Circuit Court room at the Court house, be sure 
to look at the portrait that hangs at the front of the room. It is an 
excellent likeness of Judge Stanfield, painted by Gregori, the noted 

To Judge Stanfield we owe a great debt. He worked hard to get 
the railroads to come out to this new territory, thus bringing us into 
more direct communication with the outside world. No greater 
service could have been rendered for the people at that time. 

Judge Stanfield was born in 1816 and came to South Bend in 
the spring of 1831. He was of Quaker descent. Before taking up 
law he was our first Assistant Postmaster. He studied law in the 


oflice of Judge Sample and was later made judge of the Ninth Judi- 
cial Circuit of Indiana. With his horse and buggy, he travelled 
all over the eleven counties of his circuit, holding court. You see 
he was a circuit judge for sure. 

Judge Stanfield was a member of the State Legislature at three 
different sessions. 

He died September 12, 1885. 


Almond Bugbee, a native of Vermont, was an apprentice to a 
tanner, currier and shoemaker. 

At the age of sixteen, he decided to come west and locate in 
Milwaukee. When he arrived in Niles, he heard so much about 
South Bend that he was curious to see the place. 

He arrived in 1837 and soon set up a business of his own here 
and not only made boots and shoes, but operated a tannery. 

He was against slavery and helped negroes to escape from their 
masters. His home was a station on the so-called "Underground 
Railway," that is, negroes could come to his home in the early morn- 
ing, could hide all day, and when night came, he would direct them 
to another place of safety and on to freedom. 

Mr. Bugbee was born January 3, 1815, and died in May, 1904. 

Mr. Bugbee was identified with all the public enterprises which 
worked for the best interests and growth of South Bend. 

In 1844, Mr. Bugbee was married to Miss Adelia Ann Crocker, the 
first lady principal of the first academy of South Bend. 

Mr. Bugbee was a member of the first Board of Education. 

A drinking fountain in Leeper Park, erected to the memory of 
Mr. Bugbee, is highly appreciated by the throngs of summer visitors. 


Mr. Daniel Greene was born in a log house on a farm in Ohio, in 

At the age of fourteen, he came with his parents and thirteen 
brothers and sisters to this county, enduring many of the hardships 
of the early traveller. 

When they arrived they found just a few log cabins and an In- 
dian trading post among the mighty oak trees. 


The Greene family followed the old Indian trail southwest out 
to Sumption Prairie and located there. This section of land was 
later named Greene Township. 

They lived in and under the wagons until a hewed log house 
could be built. This house was eighteen feet wide by thirty feet 
long, with a fireplace at each end. This was considered the finest 
house in this section of the county. 

Since the soil of the prairies was very rich and easily plowed, 
wheat was soon sown and other crops planted. 

Daniel was the seventh son and there was always plenty of 
work in this large family. 

He was married in 1849 to Miss Mary Leeper and continued to 
live in the old home, his mother and father having died some years 
before. Mr. Green's wife had come here in 1830 when only four 
months of age, with her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Leeper, who 
were among our earliest pioneers. 

In 1866, Mr. Greene was appointed deputy county treasurer and 
moved into South Bend. He was a stock holder in South Bend 
Chilled Plow Company and later was President of the South Bend 
Foundry Company. 

He lived to see the little Indian trading post become one of the 
greatest commercial cities of the middle west. 

His death occurred in this citv in 1912. 



The original survey placed the Michigan State line two miles 
south of here. So you see we might have belonged to the State of 

Objections to belonging to Michigan broke out in Toledo and in 
1816 Congress settled it by giving us a lake port and Toledo was 
given to Ohio. Get out your geographies and draw an imaginary 
line showing this first Michigan southern boundary. 

The prosperity and growth of South Bend is due to its favor- 
able location in a rich farming community; its unexcelled railroad 
facilities; and enterprise, thrift and activity of the men who have 
chosen it as their home. 

There are many low hills around South Bend. St. Joseph Hos- 
pital is located on the highest point of land in the city. 

The St. Joseph River adds to the beauties of nature, as it winds 
in and out. Its beautiful grass-grown, tree-covered banks afford 
many beautiful sites for homes. 

The plain on which South Bend is located was once the bed of 
the Kankakee River. 

South Bend used to be called Southold, but in 1830 was changed 
to South Bend. 


The soil of the surrounding country is very fertile. It is com- 
posed chiefly of sand and gravel, clay and loam, with some muck 
in the Kankakee bottoms. 

Great ditches have been built through the Kankakee marsh land 
to drain it. These lands have made some of our richest and most 
productive farms. 

Surrounding us are prairies, marshes, oak openings and rolling 
timber lands. 

The oak openings are covered with a light sandy soil, suited to 
the raising of small fruits and vegetables. 


The timber lands possess a sub-soil of clay, covered with a rich 
dark soil which yields all the cereals in abundance. 

The prairies both old and young have the richest and most pro- 
ductive soils and are unexcelled for the raising of all farm produce 
except wheat, which winter kills on the lowest grounds. 

The country supplies food, and raw material. Apples, grapes, 
pears and plums, also potatoes, cabbage, onions, sweet corn, tur- 
nips, radishes, and lettuce are grown for our markets. 

A new industry is the cultivation of peppermint. The world's 
chief peppermint supply comes from the country surrounding our 

The lowlands produce celery in abundance to supply our mar- 




One of the most beautiful rivers in this country is our own St. 
Joseph river. 

It rises in Michigan and flows in a south-westerly direction, 
down into Indiana, then bends towards the north again into Michi- 
gan and empties into Lake Michigan, where the city of St. Joseph 
is located. 

A number of cities and small towns are located on its banks, 
among them being Elkhart, Mishawaka, South Bend, Bertrand, Ber- 
rien Springs, and St. Joseph at its mouth. 

The Indians called our river Sawk-wauk-sil-buck. La Salle 
called it the River of the Miamis, but the missionaries named it the 
"St. Joseph of the Lakes." Of late years it has been shortened to 
St. Joseph. 

Fish abound in the river. The Indians used to catch the stur- 
geon and pike by the boat-loads. 


Long ago the Indians in their birch bark canoes, paddled up 
and down the river. Later when the fur-trading companies located 
here larger boats were needed to carry the pelts. This region fur- 
nished more pelts from the bear, raccoon, beaver, deer, buffalo, and 
other fur-bearing animals than any other part of the country. 

The slow-moving river boat was at one time the principal means 
of carrying people and their goods to one point from another. 

The St. Joseph river was not always as unsuitable for navigation 
as it is now. Many dams have been built across it for commercial 
purposes, thus destroying its use for larger boats, unless canals and 
locks be built. 

In 1830, two men named Masters and Tipsorf made several trips 


from the mouth of the river to South Bend with a keel-boat. This 
boat was propelled by poles. In 1831 the "Newburyport," a steam 
boat, tried to pull up the river, but it failed to reach South Bend. 

In 1833 the "Matilda Barney" and "Davey Crockett," two boats 
built with stern-wheel propellers, commenced running and were 
very successful. 

Many of our early settlers arrived on these river boats with all 
of their household goods. 

Merchandise for the posts and stores were also received in this 

On the down trips, these boats would carry grain, flour, hides, 
pork, furs, and pig iron. 


There were no bridges across the St. Joseph river at this early 

The pioneers had settled on both sides of the river. As it was 
not convenient for every one to have his own boat, the County Com- 
missioners authorized a ferry to be established in 1831. Mr. Nehe- 
miah B. Griffith was required to pay a license fee of two dollars for 
the privilege of running the ferry. The place where La Salle Ave- 
nue now crosses the river was chosen as the most convenient loca- 
tion for it. You remember Mr. Coquillard had built his mill at this 

In 1835 Mr. Coquillard was granted a license to establish a ferry 
where Colfax Avenue is now located. He had two boats. 

If Mr. Brown from Lowell on the east side of the river wished to 
bring his grain to the mill of Mr. Coquillard he could drive his team 
right onto the flat boat and be ferried across the river. This would 
cost him thirty-one and one-fourth (31 % ) cents for each wagon 
and two horses, and six and one-fourth (GH) cents for each person. 

If Mr. White wished to bring hogs or sheep over to the butcher's, 
he must pay two cents per head to the ferry man. 

This became a very profitable business. Larger boats were 
demanded, more ferries were established and higher license fees 
were charged. 



The need for canals and improved transportation was greater 
in Indiana than any other of the states of the Northwest territory 
because of the dense forests, swampy land and impassable streams. 

In 1826, the contract was let for the building of the Wabash 
and Erie Canal, although work was not begun until 1832. 

At the present time (1920), Congress is being urged to build a 
canal connecting the Great Lakes and the Gulf of Mexico, with 
branch routes leading through or near South Bend connecting lakes 
Michigan and Erie. 

Money has been appropriated to cover the cost of a survey of 
a twelve-foot inland waterway through Ohio and Indiana. One of 
the questions on which the engineers must decide, is the constant 
supply of water to feed the canal. 

This barge canal would place us in connection with eastern and 
middle west territory and the entire Mississippi valley. 

Should the engineers decide on the route through Fort Wayne and 
South Bend to Michigan City, it will be necessary for the people 
within a zone of about twenty-live miles on each side of the canal 
to vote in favor of a special tax in order to secure the improvement. 

Should this canal be built, it will relieve the congestion of the rail- 
ways and solve the transportation problems for the future. 


It is very difficult for us to realize all the hardships of transpor- 
tation that the early pioneers suffered. 

How did the Indians get from place to place? Do you remem- 
ber that they built their own canoes and paddled up or down stream 
as they wished? Then in order to get from one waterway to an- 
other, they would find a good landing place, put their canoes upside 
down on their heads, and trudged over the hills or through the val- 
leys and forests to their destination. 

Often these paths or trails had been made by the buffalo, elk, 
bear, otter, wolf, fox, or other wild animals which roamed over this 
land where we now live. 

These paths became fixed and permanent highways. These 
Indian trails never crossed hills which they could go around; they 
crept through the hollows, always avoiding the swampy places; they 
kept to the shadows of the big timber belts; and, when crossing an 
open prairie, traversed the least exposed and shortest route. 


Among the many noted trails were the Portage trail, leading from 
Pinhook bend of the St. Joseph river to the head waters of the Kan- 
kakee, now called Portage avenue; The Dragoon trace, the trail fol- 
lowed by the fur traders in coming from the post of what is now 
Fort Wayne and the post located here. Lincoln Way East is a part 
of this trail. 

Any one who has followed the road to Crumstown will recognize 
the winding trail, bending here and there to avoid obstructions of 
various kinds. This trail led toward the south and was used by the 
Indians coming from villages inhabited by other groups of the 

South Michigan Street, a part of the old Michigan road, marks 
the line of another old southern trail leading to the Pottawattomie 
villages at Twin Lakes and Lake Maxinkuckee. 

Sumption Prairie road to the southwest and South Bend Avenue 
to the northeast, mark the locations of other trails. 

(iood roads were of great importance to the early settler. 

In a treaty of 1826 the United States secured from the Pottawat- 
tomies the land for the construction of the Michigan road. 

In March, 1827, surveyors set out to locate and make a road 
from Lake Michigan to the Ohio River. This road was to be one 
hundred feet wide throughout its entire course. 

On account of the Kankakee marsh it was necessary to make an 
indirect route, thereby bringing the road from Michigan City to South 
Bend, and then on in a southerly direction to the Ohio River. 

The road was planked and corduroyed in a number of sections 
where necessary. Do you know what a corduroy road is? If you 
have ever ridden over one, you surely never would forget it. 

The swampy places in the road are filled in by placing round 
logs close together across the road. This kept horses and wagons 
of all kinds from sinking into the mire. Can you imagine the jolts 
you would receive as you drove across? 

This road served as an outlet to the east by way of the Ohio 

Many immigrants from the east flocked to the new land. 

This road was completed through here in 1832 and through to 
the lake in 1834 :md 183."). 



Lincoln Highway, a national road, passes through South Bend 
on its coast to coast route. It is named in honor of Abraham Lin- 

It follows the south bank of the St. Joseph river from Misha- 
waka, passes through the heart of the business district and on in a 
westerly direction on La Salle Street and what is now Lincoln Way 
West (formerly Michigan Avenue). This road is marked with red, 
white and blue bars, surmounted by a large capital L painted on 
telegraph poles. 

A memorial to Soldiers and Sailors of the World War will be 
placed on this national highway within the county limits. 


The first bridge across the St. Joseph river was built at Wash- 
ington Street on the west side and connecting with Market (now 
Colfax) on the east side, in 1847. 

Soon another bridge was needed at Water street (now La Salle 
Avenue) and a wooden bridge with a roof over it was constructed. 
In 1865, a tornado swept over our city doing some damage to public 
buildings, and struck and damaged the roof at the east end of the 
bridge. The county commissioners decided to remove the entire 
roof instead of repairing the old one. 

Next a plain wooden bridge was erected at Jefferson Street and 
later the Leeper bridge on N. Michigan Street. 

Four miles north of the city at Sider's Mill another bridge was 
built. This was a great convenience to the residents on the oppo- 
site side of the river, who wished to bring their grain to the flour- 
ing mill. Before the bridge was built the ferry took the farmers 
across the river with their loads of grain to be ground. 

These wooden bridges were all replaced later with iron ones. 


Today all bridges within the city limits are of concrete and steel 
construction, broad streets and sidewalks traversing them. 

Recent investigations seem to indicate that the first bridge 
was built about 1837 by Mr. Coquillard at Marion Street. Many citi- 
zens remember the upright posts standing in the bed of the river 
long after the bridge was gone. 



Such a commotion as there was in town? Every able-bodied 
man, woman and child was out on the road, walking, riding or 
driving in the old family carriage. Can you guess the reason for 
all this excitement? It was Saturday, October 4, 1851. 

The news had spread all over the country side that the first 
train was to arrive from the east over the Michigan Southern and 
Northern Indiana railroad. (This is now the Lake Shore Division of 
the New York Central Lines.) 

As the train pulled into the station, located on West South 
Street, everybody cheered lustily bonfires were lighted and forty- 
eight rounds from the town's old iron cannon were fired. 

Had the boys and girls of today been there, they surely would 
have joined in the shouting and cheering at the sight that met their 
eyes as that first train came down the tracks. What a frightful look- 
ing thing it was as it came steaming down the iron tracks with such 
a great noise. 

The engine was about the size of a modern tractor, the wheels 
not over forty-eight inches in diameter. Wood was used for fuel, 
the tender was piled high with large chunks and the fireman was 
kept very busy. 

The smoke-stack was shaped like a balloon. The engine had a 
name. It was called the John Stryker. Can you guess where they 
got the idea of naming engines? Boats always had names, so as 
engines were built and came into use they too were given names. 
Do the engines of today have names? 

The coaches were about the size of our large electric cars. 
There were three of them, each carrying about thirty-six people. 
The baggage car was very short. 

Hand-brakes were used on these first trains. 

South Bend was the end of the line at that time and the train 
started back to the east the next morning. 

Later the line was extended to Chicago. 

The coming of steam trains brought rapid changes to this new 

Other railroads entering the city besides the New York Central, 

Chicago, Indiana and Southern Michigan Central branch. 

Lake Erie and Western. The Grand Trunk. 

Pennsylvania Lines Vandalia. 

New Jersey, Indiana and Illinois, besides the Interurbans. 



In 1873 the South Rend Street Railway Company was incorpo- 
rated, but it was not until 1880 that the common council granted 
the first franchise. 

The company was allowed to lay the rails but not allowed to 
use any power, other than horses or mules to draw the street-cars. 
Wouldn't that be a queer sight today? And such queer little cars 
that were used! 

In 1882, they attempted the use of the trolley system, the 
first attempt of its kind in the history of street railways. This 
proved a failure, as the cars would go only a part of a block, and 
then stop, on account of the failure of the electric power. 

Later this defect was remedied, and cars now run by electricity 
on all our streets and between cities. 

Power houses were erected to furnish power between the 
towns of Osceola, Elkhart, Goshen, Laporte, Michigan City, Niles, 
Berrien Springs and St. Joseph. 



In 1847, the Western Union Telegraph Company wanted to con- 
struct a line, connecting Buffalo and Milwaukee. In order to pass 
through South Bend, the citizens were asked to contribute $2,000 
and to the credit of our enterprising citizens of that early day the 
money was at once subscribed, but Chicago refused to give any help 
to this enterprise, and the promoters were forced to give up the 
project for a while. However in 1848, the line was completed, 
and South Bend was in easy communication with the east. 

Mrs. J. B. Reynolds received the first message that was sent 
over the line. This message is preserved in the Historical Asso- 
ciation rooms in the old Court House. 

Before 1848, the only way we could hear anything of what 
was going on with the outside world, was such as the lumbering 
stage coach and slow-moving river boat could give us. 

The quickest way to get the news was that which the well- 
mounted horse back rider provided. 

Long intervals elapsed between the occurrence of important 
events in the eastern states and the first arrival of the news in this 
part of the country. 

The telegraph changed all this and news was flashed across the 


In 1880, we had our first telephone exchange. 

In 188 ( J, the Central Union Company was authorized to raise 
its poles and wires for business. 

In 1893, the Long Distance telephone company extended its 
lines through South Bend from New York to Chicago. 

Telephone service is improving all the time. It is now possible 
to telephone to New York or California. 



In 1848, gold was discovered in California. Glowing tales of 
the richness of the discovery were on every tongue. 

The rush to the gold-fields was unequalled in history. Lawyers, 
merchants, engineers, farmers, blacksmiths, and doctors dropped 
their work and planned to leave immediately. 

But how were they to get there? The Indians and our early 
pioneers had followed the trails and waterways. Between here and 
California there was no satisfactory road or water-way. Look at 
your map of the United States, and decide for yourself. 

In 1849, one hundred eight men and women of our tov/n and 
county decided to seek riches in the gold fields. South Bend was 
one of the first communities in the middle west to start an expedi- 
tion to California. Some went across the plains and some by way 
of Panama. 

There was great excitement in town and many friends turned 
out to see them start. They had two wagons, seven yoke of oxen, 
and two years' supply of food. 

They left home in the spring. Road conditions were deplorable. 
Mud, slush and flood were passed through on the way. 

Many wearied of the trip and returned home. As they reached 
the prairies the road conditions improved, but other troubles arose. 
The Indians resented their coming through these western lands and 
attacked them. Many streams had to be forded; often times the 
wagons would break down, and stops would have to bo made for 

After seven months of slow tedious travel, over hill, mountain, 
prairie and desert, they finally arrived in the land of California. 

They were a happy, jolly party. Many an evening was whiled 
away around the camp-fire, singing songs and playing on the many 
musical instruments which they had brought with them. 

All suffered privations and hardships beyond description. Only 
a few found gold in large enough quantities to be able to save it 
and bring it back to their home town. 

Among those who made the trip either in 184'J or later were: 
David R. Leeper, Chauncey O. Fassett, Ethan S. Reynolds and J. 
M. Studebaker. 



Do you know why we have so many apples in this part of the 
country? Many years ago (1801) there was a young man, by the 
name of John Chapman, who thought it was a sin to kill anything 
in order to get food. He didn't want the settlers in this new country 
to eat the wild meat and fish found in forests and streams. He 
considered this a savage way of living. 

He visited the cider presses of New York and Pennsylvania and 
filled his bags with the seeds that had been thrown away. 

He wanted to do some good in the world, so with his pack on 
his back, he travelled westward to this new country through Ohio 
and into Indiana. 

He was a queer looking man. He wore a coffee sack for a coat 
with holes cut in it for his head and arms. He sometimes wore a 
tin pan on his head, which served both for a hat and a stewpan. 
He went barefoot the most of the time, even in winter. 

Except in very bad weather he always slept in the open forest. 
When necessary to sleep indoors, he preferred to lie on the floor 
in front of the fire place with his kit for a pillow. 

In those days there were many Indians all over the country 
and they often met and walked with John. When they saw what 
he was doing with the apple cores, they thought he was silly. 

They said, "Apple seed John will be dead many, many moons 
before those seeds will bear fruit." They did not know that it was 
for the people who lived after him, that old John planted the apple 

The little seeds took root and tiny twigs appeared. How slowly 
they grew. But after many years, there stood in the woods and 
meadows many apple trees. 

For forty years Johnny Appleseed travelled the forests and 
prairies of Ohio and Indiana, caring for his trees, teaching the 
farmers apple culture, and assisting them in planting and caring 
for orchards. 


Old Simon Pokagon, an Indian chief, lived near here, and when 
he heard that Johnny Appleseed was on his way, he would drive 
out with his two-wheeled wagon, and his yoke of oxen and meet 
him. They always had a good visit, then the old chief would drive 
to the next village with him. He was always glad to ride with this 
friendly Indian . 

He died in 1847, age seventy-two. 


In 1832, Black Hawk, a famous Indian chief, seeking revenge 
on the whites for taking the lands from his people, gathered his war- 
riors about him, put on the war-paint and made the attack. 

His plan was to creep stealthily up to the villages, kill the peo- 
ple, drive off the stock, and burn the property. 

Our little settlement immediately became alarmed and plans 
were drawn for a fort to be built on the present site of the stand- 



It was constructed of split longs, eight or ten feet long, set deep 
in the ground, and close together, so as to shield the people within, 
and keep back the hordes of Indians without. 

L. M. Taylor was appointed colonel and placed in charge of 
the fort. 

The inhabitants were in constant fear of the Indians. Many 
false alarms were spread as to the nearness of the foe. 

Jean Beaudoin, a young Frenchman, travelled on foot one hun- 
dred and sixty miles to notify the villages of the approach of Black 
Hawk. Arriving in South Bend, he delivered his message and died 
from exhaustion. 

Preparations were made to occupy the fort when word was 
received that the Indians had been stopped. Black Hawk never 
attempted another attack on the whites. 



Long, long time ago, when South Bend was just a small village 
it was quite the usual thing to have "spelling matches" to determine 
who was the best speller in the whole town. 

Mary Ann Massey and Mary Ann Eaton, sat by the fireplace 
one spring day, busily sewing and discussing the great difficulty 
of a girl earning money in this little frontier settlement of South 
Bend in 1837. Money was very scarce, and woman's work was 
counted of small value. 

"You have the advantage," said Mary Ann Massey, "for you are 
older than I and your mother is well. They all call me a little 
girl, and it takes much of my time to help mother for she is never 
strong. I have been more than two weeks, making two shirts for 
Louis, the wood-chopper, and I will receive only fifty cents when 
they are done, and I am furnishing the buttons and thread, loo. 

"Knitting socks at a shilling a pair, is slow too," said the other 
Mary Ann. "But then we must not worry. Next week is the spell- 
ing school at Bertrand, and such a gay time as we will have. Mary 
Ann Massey if you would just go and show those town smarties 
how to spell this would be the happiest spot in Indiana. If I were 
a whole spelling book like you are, nothing would keep me away." 

"If I had a nice merino dress like yours, nothing would keep 
me away. My clothes do very well here, but not for a large town 
like Bertrand. 

"How much money have you?" 
"Almost three dollars." 

"We will finish the shirts right now, and that will make fifty 
cents more. Then I will lend you the difference and we will get 
that pretty blue merino at Brownfields' store. We will make it nice 
and wide, and South Bend will spell down all the towns on the 

How their needles Hew that afternoon, and they soon finished 
the shirts. The next thing was to deliver them, so they started 
through the woods to find Louis, the woodchopper. 

The path wound under the oaks and through ferns and wild 
flowers, past the place where the Grand Trunk depot now stands, 
then on up the incline called the bluff, through the yard of the pres- 
ent Lafayette school, then skirting eastward along the edge of a clear 
little pond, they found Louis working far out in the forest. (Thej 
Studebaker Administration building occupies the spot where the 
girls found Louis.) It was too far for girls to venture alone, but so 


intent were they on their errand, that they did not realize the dis- 
tance they had come. 

With the money clasped close in her hand, Mary Ann skipped 
along, both girls talking eagerly about the new dress. 

Suddenly old Wahtemah stepped from the shelter of a tree and 
blocked the path. When Wahtemah was sober, he was just a lazy, 
worthless Indian; when drunk, he was a cruel brute. He must have 
seen Mary Ann receive the money from Louis for he instantly de- 
manded it. Frowning fiercely he thrust his huge red hand toward 
Mary Ann, muttering, "Give, give." 

With a wonderful display of courage, she backed against a tree 
and refused to give up her hard earnings. "No, Wahtemah, you 
cannot have." 

"Give," he cried, lifting his tomahawk. 

"Give it to him, Mary Ann, give it to him," pleaded her com- 

"I will not let him have it! Never, never!" 

Enraged and cursing he drew his arm up to strike, when a 
brown fist shot out from the bushes, and knocked him headlong. 

"Well," said Louis, the wood-chopper, "I saw that skunk hang- 
ing around in the underbrush, so I thought I would follow you." 

It is strange to record that the brave and invincible Mary Ann 
fainted as soon as the danger was over but that is just what she did, 
and Louis had to carry her home. 

Mary Ann Eaton carried out their plans, bought the blue merino, 
and rallied all the settlement girls to the sewing bee. Matilda Busha, 
Peg Johnson, Mary Ellen Patterson, Elmina Phelps, Nancy Wade 
and Mrs. Massey were busy putting the finest of stitches into the 
new dress. 

Mary Ann was not allowed to do anything. She lay on the 
turkey-red calico couch and studied the old blue spelling book. 
Many were the predictions as to her success at the spelling school. 

When the great day came, Mrs. Massey viewed her daughter, 
with mingled pleasure and anxiety. The new dress with its tight 
waist, skirt four yards wide, mutton-leg sleeves and white embroid- 
ered linen collar was the height of pioneer fashion. The color was 
most becoming to the delicate beauty of Mary Ann. 

"Now, daughter, don't forget your spelling and don't let the 
boat sink, for you might drown." 

"I'll try not to do either, mother, for getting my dress wet would 
be worse than drowning." 


When the "Davy Crockett" tied up at the little wharf, there were 
so many passengers that it was impossible to take them all. Un- 
daunted, some went down in row-boats, some took the narrow trail 
that wound along the bank. Each wanted to witness the downfall 
of proud Bertrand. Those who could not go, waved hands and 
shouted encouragement, until the little steamer passed out of sight. 

Bertrand was a bustling town of a thousand inhabitants and 
this gala occasion had drawn together a large number of visitors 
from Niles, St. Joseph, Mishawaka, and all the surrounding country. 
They came in ox-carts, on foot, on horse-back, in canoes, in flat-boats 
and pirogues. 

Mary Ann felt dazed, but no one paid any special attention to 
her, and she. gradually overcame the disconcerting effect of such an 
unusual crowd of people. 

The spelling took place in the largest room of the largest tavern; 
Captain Higbee was the leader on the one side and Mr. Yerrington 
on the other. Mr. Yerrington having heard from Mr. Coquillard of 
the spelling ability of Mary Ann, and being very desirous of pleasing 
that gentleman, promptly chose Mary Ann on his side. 

The house, the yards, and adjoining streets were packed with 
interested listeners. The school-master from Niles pronounced the 

There were many good spellers in those days, but gradually one 
after another was spelled down much to the disappointment of their 
friends, who had made many bets on their ability. 

No one took our Mary Ann seriously, as she was only fourteen 
and small for her age. Upheld by the consciousness of her beauti- 
ful dress, she stood calmly smiling and spelled and spelled and 
spelled. Phthisic, pneumonia and pterodactyl, ichthysaurus and 
idiosyncratical, all rolled off her tongue as easily as c-a-t cat. On 
and on until the spelling book was exhausted, and the weary school- 
master took up a strange book, called a dictionary. Cries of "un- 
fair" went round the room, and Mary Ann felt a queer sensation of 
dread for a moment, but the thought of her white embroidered col- 
lar and her gold pin steadied her nerves and she spelled on reso- 
lutely. At last she stood alone on the floor. She had won the spell- 
ing match. 

So great was the joy of Antoine Lasseur, a French hunter, that 
he grabbed his coonskin cap, pushed his way through the crowd, 
and "striking the courier's lope," ran all the way back to South 
Bend with the glad news. Do you know what is meant by "striking 
the courier's lope"? In those days it was often necessary to send 
messages from one place to another and the foot-path was often 


the shortest route. A runner who could keep up a steady gait all 
the way, was the best one to carry important messages. All hunters 
and woodsmen aimed to acquire this ability. 

When the "Matilda Barney" steamed up the little wharf every- 
body was on the river bank to greet Mary Ann. Joyful laughter, ring- 
ing cheers, happy congratulations, met her and she fully deserved 
them, too. This was the first time that such great honors had come 
to South Bend. The champion speller of St. Joseph County was 
Mary Ann Massey. 

This is a true story told to Mrs. Emma B. Harris by Mary Ann 
Massey, herself. 



The first newspaper to be established in this town was the 
Northwestern Pioneer and Intelligencer in 1831. It was started by 
John D. and Joseph H. Defrees. 

The printing press and print paper were brought overland from 
the east in an ox-cart. 

This was the first paper published north of the Wabash river 
or west of Detroit. 

News was scarce in those early days. The mail came by stage 
only once in two weeks. After a six months' struggle, the paper 
was sold and its name changed to the "St. Joseph Beacon." Why do 
you suppose they changed its name? Why did they think "Beacon" 
a better name? After eighteen months, the publication of the paper 
was discontinued. 

In 1836, the "South Bend Free Press" appeared. This paper 
continued publication for nine years, when in 1845 Albert West and 
Schuyler Colfax bought the office and fixtures and changed the name 
to the "St. Joseph Valley Register." 

For twenty years this paper was conducted under their able 

The Register was always opposed to slavery, and many editori- 
als were written to convince readers of the wrongs committed in the 
slave states. 

In 1865, the paper was sold again. There were many changes 
in ownership from then until 1887, when the paper went out of 


One of our most honored citizens and one who achieved 
national distinction was Schuyler Colfax, a former vice-president 
of the United States. 


He was born in the state of New York in 1823. At the age of 
thirteen he came west and settled in New Carlisle, St. Joseph County. 

He early developed a taste for politics and newspaper work. 
He worked as an errand boy in the office of the newspaper, which 
he later bought and edited. At the age of twenty-two (1845) he 
founded the St. Joseph Valley Register and became its editor. 

At first local news was scarce, so the paper was published only 
once a week. In 1848, the telegraph brought more news from the 
outside world, but still there were not enough patrons to warrant a 
daily issue. 

Mr. Colfax continued as editor and owner until 1865. 

In 1855, he was elected to Congress, and re-elected for six con- 
secutive terms. From 1863-1869, he was the Speaker of the House 
of Representatives. 

In 1869, he was elected as vice-president on the ticket with 
U. S. Grant. 

He was beloved by the citizens of South Bend and all who knew 
him best. 

He was an eloquent orator and wise statesman. 

His name will be honored for many generations as one who 
stood as the highest type of American citizen. 

He died in 1885. 

The name Market Street was changed to Colfax Avenue. 

Colfax school is named for this worthy citizen. 


In 1872, Alfred B. Miller and Elmer Crockett founded the South 
Bend Tribune. These men had worked on the St. Joseph Valley 
Register, so their experience helped them in starting the new paper. 

November 4, 1887, the Tribune Printing Company, publisher of 
the South Bend Tribune, bought the name and equipment of the St. 
Joseph Valley Register. 

The Tribune was a success from the start. It was then and still 
is an independent Republican newspaper. 

The Tribune was the first newspaper in this part of Indiana to 
be printed on a rotary stereotype press. The linotype and intertype 
machines are also used for setting type. 

A modern press will print, fold and count the papers at the rate 
of 36,000 per hour. 


1920 This Company is building a modern fireproof newspaper 
building of three stories at the corner of Lafayette Boulevard and 
Colfax Avenue. This office will be equipped with a modern high- 
speed Goss press, forty feet long, nine feet wide and nine feet high. 
This great press will print newspapers from two to sixteen pages 
at the rate of 72,000 copies per hour. 

The Tribune also operates type-casting machines which cast 
individual type and rule. 

Some technical information about the printing of newspapers. 

Modern typesetting machines have revolutionized our news- 
paper offices of to-day. 

Formerly, each letter was picked up separately and placed in a 
stick, made to hold the type. 

The linotype machine gets its name because it casts a line of 
type in one single slug. 

An operator sits in front of a keyboard, each key being a letter 
and operated similar to the typewriter. 

As the operator presses down on the keys he causes the mechan- 
ism of the linotype to form the letters out of molten metal, a whole 
line at a time and drops the line into place in a form, or stick as 
the printer calls it, which is made to hold these lines. 

After a great many lines are done, they print a proof, to see if 
the spelling is correct. It is quite necessary that the printer be a 
good speller. 

If the proof-reader finds a mistake, then the whole line must be 

After the whole page of news, illustrations, and advertising 
matter has been made up, (each page being made up on a separate 
table) it is then taken to the sterotyping department. Here a papier- 
-mache mold is made of the pages. It is then placed in a curved 
casting machine. Metal in liquid form is then poured into the mold. 
After being cooled and trimmed, it is ready for the rotary printing 

The paper passes between rollers, ink being supplied for the 
plates and the printed page is the result. 

The paper comes in large rolls, about 800 to 1,000 Ibs. to a roll. 
Each roll will print 0,000 eight-page papers. 


Large presses have three or four large rolls running at the same 
time and produce a 24 or 48 page newspaper. 

All the hardened metal that is used in the makeup of the paper 
is put back into a pot and re-melted for the next day's use. 


In 1853, the St. Joseph County Forum began publication. This 
was the paper of the Democratic party. It was edited by A. E. 
Drapier and Son. It did not succeed and was discontinued in 1863. 

After the war, it was purchased by Edward Malloy, and its name 
was changed to "South Bend Weekly Union." In 1874, its name be- 
came the "Herald." In 1881, the name was again changed, this time 
its name being the "South Bend Times." You see, each new owner 
wished to give what he thought would be a better name for the 

In 1883, Mr. J. B. Stoll became the chief owner and editor. The 
democrats of the county were well satisfied with the conduct of the 
paper under Mr. StolPs able leadership. 

In 1911, the Sunday Morning News, with G. A. Fassett as editor, 
was consolidated with the Times Printing Company and the name 
became "South Bend News-Times." It still retains this name. 

This printing office is equipped with modern typesetting ma- 
chines and printing presses, such as are now used by all up-to-date 



To the Teacher: Bring out the most interesting details in this 


The years 1861-1865, American loyalty received a severe test. 
Hundreds of South Bend's citizens gave up their lives on southern 
battlefields and many received great honors in the struggle. 

President's Lincoln's first call for volunteers was for three 
months' service. He felt sure that the rebellion could be put down 
in a short time. 

Our first company was organized in 1861, with Andrew Ander- 
son as captain, and the regiment, of which this was a part, was the 
first to leave the state. Ten or more companies were recruited from 
this city. 

1866 As an expression of appreciation of their services to their 
flag and country, a picnic and reception was given the returned 
soldiers in Coquillard (".rove, on the Edwardsburg Road, northeast 
of the city. 

These veterans who went forth to light for the Union are organ- 
ized into two posts of the Grand Army of the Republic, the Auten 
Post and Norman G. Eddy Post. John Auten was the first South 
Bend boy to give his life in the Civil War. Norman G. Eddy was 
Colonel in command of the Forty-eighth Indiana regiment. 

The lasting patriotism of these men is demonstrated on all pub- 
lic occasions, and particularly on Memorial Day, when beautiful and 
patriotic ceremonies are conducted at the city cemetery in which 
they take a prominent part. 

Every boy and girl has an opportunity to show his appreciation 
of these heroes on Memorial Day and should not fail to do so. 



When Spain mistreated little Cuba so mercilessly and refused to 
stop, our people were very sympathetic toward Cuba and indignant 
toward Spain. When our battleship, the Maine, was blown up, and 
we believed that Spain had done it, our people could no longer be 
restrained. They clamored for a war; a war that would demon- 
strate our pity for Cuba and revenge for ourselves. And in due time 
war was declared. 

Hundreds of South Bend's boys responded to the call of Presi- 
dent McKinley to protect the rights of American ships and citizens. 

Our local company of the State Militia was the nucleus of a 
regiment which left South Bend, with George E. Studebaker as 
Colonel. This regiment was encamped in Florida, ready to sail at a 
moment's notice, but before the opportunity arrived, peace was de- 

The troops were demobilized and like true Americans returned 
to their homes and went on about their various businesses. Each 
enlisted man had demonstrated his loyalty to his flag and his coun- 
try, and his country had performed a great and unselfish service for 


When Germany marched her soldiers across Belgium on her 
way to Paris, the whole world was disturbed over the violation of 
Belgium's rights. 

The patriotism of many of South Bend's boys was aroused and 
a number enlisted for service with Canadian and French regiments. 


Jn April, 1917, President Wilson issued his call for volunteers, 
and South Bend responded with her full share. 

Never before was the patriotism of our people put to such a 
severe test as in this war. Never before had such cruel methods 
of warfare or such devilish machines been used, the gigantic can- 
nons, undersea boats, explosive mines, tanks, and other deadly 
apparatus held life as nothing. Then too, there was the danger of 
crossing the Atlantic Ocean, and lighting in foreign lands. 

Our country had over two and a half million men over there 


to finish the job. South Bend was well represented; in fact, a South 
Bend man, Alex Arch, fired the first American shot. 

Many, alas, never came back, having fallen on the battlefields 
of France, at the Marne, the Argonne Forest, or elsewhere. Many 
also died of disease in hospitals at home and "over there." 

In this greatest of wars, our country, our own United States, 
did its best. South Bend did its best. Our people responded 
patriotically to every call made upon them. Men, women and chil- 
dren gave gladly their services and their money. This spirit 
undoubtedly saved the world from an awful calamity. 

Best of all, our nation came out of the war with a perfect record 
for honesty and uprightness. What an honor to be an American. 



Years ago, every family had a deep-driven well in the yard for 
drinking purposes, also a cistern of rainwater for household use. 

If a house caught on fire, every man in the village turned out to 
help put out the fire. They formed what was called a "bucket 
brigade;" this was done by having one man at the pump, filling the 
buckets and passing them along a line of men (and often times 
women were called on to help) till the bucket reached the man on 
the ladder or on the roof. 

Often times the fires did a great deal of damage before help was 


In 1855, the Volunteer Fire Department was organized. They 
had a hand engine as their only equipment. 

The fire department was the pride of the town, and on all holi- 
days the men appeared in natty uniforms, their machines decorated 
with flowers, banners, and ribbons. 

Edmond Pitts Taylor, brother of Lathrop M. Taylor, was the 
first fire foreman, the members of the company were merchants, 
manufacturers, and mechanics of the town. 

In 1868, a steam fire-engine was purchased. 

In 1873, the Volunteer Fire Department was re-organized with 
Capt. Edwin Nicar as chief engineer. This department finally grew 
to seven companies with Isaac Hutchins as chief. 


About this time, it was decided that a pressure system of water- 
supply was needed in South Bend. 

There were a great many arguments for and against the stand- 
pipe, the Holly and the Reservoir system. It was finally decided to 
install the standpipe system and the contract was let to Mr. Alex- 
ander Staples. 


The raising of the standpipe was a wonderful engineering feat. 
It was reported in the cities all over this country and Europe. 

The two hundred feet of the pipe were placed in position at 
one time, all the sections having been fastened together and made 
water tight while lying on the ground. This was fastened onto a 
base casting, weighing seven and one-half tons. 

It was impossible to buy pulleys large enough to serve the pur- 
pose of placing the pipe in position, so Mr. Staples set to work and 
made them himself. 

They began the raising of the pipe November 15, 1873 and by 
Christmas Day the work was completed, and the river water turned 
in and made ready for the power test. 

The brick walls surrounding the pipe were built the following 


Mr. J. M. Studebaker and Mr. Leighton Pine, two of our young 
business men of the olden time had many a heated argument over 
the value of the two pressure systems. 

It was one of these heated arguments which resulted in the story 
of the bob-tailed cow. 

Mr. Pine, "I tell you, the standpipe system is the only one that 
will give us water pressure." 

Mr. Studebaker, "Pressure, indeed! Why, I'll bet you can't get 
pressure enough to drive me from the tower of my building." 

Mr. P., "I'll take the bet. What will you bet?" 

Mr. S., "Why, I'll bet you a cow." 

When the day arrived to test the pressure, the whole town turned 
out to see the test. 

It was a beautiful Christmas Day, so warm that the men folks 
sat out in the yard without their coats. And it is said that one of 
our prominent ladies of the town went down the street carrying a 

Mr. Studebaker took his place in the tower. Mr. Edwin Nicar, 
John C. Knoblock and Caleb Kimball were chosen as judges to 
decide the test. Schuyler Colfax also stood in the tower with Mr. 

The fire department appeared down the street and attaching the 
hose to the hydrant, quickly turned it on the tower. 

Mr. Studebaker realized the full force of the water and quickly 
descended amidst the cheers and laughter of the crowd. 


Mr. Studebaker presented the cow to Mr. Pine as payment of the 

Mr. Pine decided to sell the cow at public auction and give the 
money to the poor. Mr. John Hartman, who had a wonderful voice, 
was called upon to be the auctioneer. 

The cow was sold several times, each time the money being 
turned over to charity. Three hundred dollars were realized on 
the sale of the cow. 

The cow was elaborately decorated with ribbons from head to 
tail and hereby hangs the most amusing part of my story. 

As the last buyer was leading the cow away, Mr. Bleem, a 
butcher, rushed after it with a huge knife and cut off its tail. 

The crowd became indignant and chased the butcher down the 
street. He dropped the tail and it was quickly picked up by the 

They then discovered that the cow was a bob-tailed animal and 
the tail had been fastened on for a joke. 

The crowd's anger gave place to laughter. The tail was then put 
up at auction and after being sold several times, they found that it 
had brought in forty-five dollars for charity. 

In justice to Mr. Studebaker and his belief in the Holly system of 
water pressure, it is interesting to note that he lived to see the day 
when the standpipe was replaced by the reservoir holding six mil- 
lion gallons of water. This reservoir is located just east of the North 
Pumping Station on North Michigan Street. 

It is fed from one hundred deep driven wells of pure sparkling 
water. (1920). The standpipe continues to furnish a part of the 
water pressure of the city. 


South Bend's present Fire Department consists of nine com- 
panies and a central station, equipped with a chemical, two trucks, 
(one service and one aerial) also the hose and pumper. Can you 
tell the various uses of this equipment? 

The horse drawn fire apparatus has rapidly been replaced by 
motor driven vehicles. 

The chief and all members of the department are now paid for 
their services. 

The department has a Fireman's Pension Fund. 



Lathrop Minor Taylor and Alexis Coquillard purchased from the 
government the land upon which they laid out the new town at the 
south bend of the river, and by their united efforts, they had suc- 
ceeded in causing the removal of the county seat to the town thus 

For several years the sessions of the circuit court, the board of 
justices and the board of commissioners were held at the home of 
Alexis Coquillard. 

In 1835, the county commissioners called a meeting for the pur- 
pose of electing town trustees. This was the first step toward the 
incorporation of the town. The trustees were elected and Horatio 
Chapin was chosen as the first president of the board. 

There was not much business to transact and the trustees did not 
have many meetings. New elections were neglected so that in 
1844, it was thought best to apply to the legislature for a special 

With the panic of 1837 over, the Michigan road bringing 
new people to our town and the boats of the St. Joseph bringing here 
the commerce of the lakes, the need for a regular form of govern- 
ment was realized. 

The charter was granted, and town trustees elected. John 
Brownfield was chosen as the president. 

Town trustees with a president as the chief oflicer continued 
until 1865, when South Bend was incorporated as a city. William 
(i. George was the first mayor. 

The city was divided into three wards at lirst. With the addi- 
tion of territory on all sides of the city, it has been necessary to 
change the number from time to time, until at present South Bend is 
divided into seven wards. Each ward is represented in the City 
Council by one representative, and we have three additional coun- 
cilmen elected by the city at large. 

The city has continued to grow in business, in civic development 
and in population. In 1831 the population was 128; in 1840 it had 


increased to 728; in I860, 3,833; in 1900, 35,999. The population for 
1920 is close to 75,000. 

In 1901, by an act of the legislature South Bend was given a 
special charter. The chief purpose was to separate the powers of 
government into three departments legislative, administrative and 
judicial. This form of government is more modern and fits the 
needs of a growing city. 

The legislative, or law-making department was the common 
council; the administrative powers were confided to the mayor and 
several officers and boards to be appointed by him; the judicial 
department was placed in a court, presided over by a city judge. 

A Municipal Code or uniform code of laws was enacted in 1905. 
Under this code cities were classified according to population, and 
the laws made, conform with the population. South Bend is a city 
of the third class. 




South Bend is strictly speaking a manufacturing city. It is 
quite impossible to give an account of every industry. Each year 
some new industry is organized and almost every variety of manu- 
factured article is produced here either on a large or small scale. 

We have tried to give you a few of the larger typical ones. 


The Studebaker family is of Dutch origin, having arrived in this 
country from Holland in 173(5. The members decided to make their 
homes in Pennsylvania. 

Here they lived and raised their families. The third generation 
after these lirst arrivals are the ones in which we are interested. 
These were the sons of John and Rebecca Studebaker. 

There were many wagon-makers and blacksmiths in each gen- 
eration of the Studebaker family. 

In 1835 John Studebaker decided to come west and grow up 
with the country. They made the trip overland in three wagons, one 
of them being of Conestoga pattern drawn by four horses. 

This was a very diflicult way of travelling. There were few 
roads, and they were usually deep with mud, winding through the 
wilderness of forest and prairie. In some places there were mere 
Indian trails, and they had to get out and chop down the trees, so 
that the covered wagons could pass. 

There were few bridges, so many streams had to be forded. 

There was also danger of attacks by wolves; drink-crazed 
Indians also added to the perils and sufferings of the travellers but 
they finally arrived and settled at Ashland, Ohio. 

They had to work very hard to make a living, as there were ten 


children to be fed and clothed. The mother had to spin, and weave 
the cloth to make the clothes for the family. 

In 1850 Henry and Clem decided to start out in business. They 
came to South Bend, again enduring many of the hardships of the 
pioneer traveller. Clem taught school and also worked at black- 
smithing at fifty cents a day. They soon had saved sixty-eight dol- 
lars and enough more to buy two forges. So in 1852 they started 
in business, blacksmithing and wagon-making. They had a hard 
time making a success, but finally their brother John returned from 
California, with $8,000 in gold nuggets which he had earned. He 
bought out his brother Henry, who preferred to live on a farm. Later 
another brother, Peter E. came from Goshen to become a member 
of the firm. 

During the Civil War, the government had need of many 
wagons, and the Studebaker Bros, turned out the best of its kind for 
the government. This won for them a reputation that assured the 
future prosperity of the firm. 

Being the world's largest producers of horse-drawn vehicles, it 
was natural for them to become interested in the horseless carriages, 
as automobiles were at first called. 

In 1902 they built and sold twenty electric run-abouts and 
trucks. In 1904 they began building gasoline automobiles and trucks. 

The business increased so rapidly that now it is one of the 
largest in the world. 

At the outbreak of the World War in August, 1914, the English 
Government placed an order for three thousand transport wagons, 
twenty thousand sets of harness and sixty thousand saddles. This 
was probably the largest single order ever placed. 

The contract called for delivery in twenty weeks, and it was 
actually completed in sixteen weeks. Orders followed for ambu- 
lancs, drinking wagons, spare parts, and repeat orders on harness 
and saddles. Orders were also received from the French and Rus- 
sian governments. 

When the United States entered the war, the Studebaker Cor- 
poration placed its plants at the disposal of President Wilson. They 
reduced the manufacture of passenger cars in order to serve the 
government in the largest possible way. 

All of the founders of this great manufacturing establishment 
have passed away. The business continues to grow under the able 
leadership of the officers of the corporation. 

The Studebaker Corporation built and equipped the Young 


Men's Christian Association building and presented it to the city. 

A set of slides, furnished by the Studebaker Corporation for the 
use of the schools may be borrowed from the Superintendent's office. 


In every country where the soil is turned the word "Oliver" is 
known and the Oliver plow is sold and used. 

The Oliver Chilled Plow Works is the largest plow factory in 
the world, turning out annually between 500,000 and 1,000,000 

Mr. James Oliver, the founder, was born in Scotland, on August 
28th, 1823. He came to America at the early age of twelve years. A 
year later he located in Mishawaka, Indiana, then a thriving little 
town, made so by the discovery of bog-iron in the vicinity. After 
one year's schooling Mr. Oliver was obliged to stop and go to work 
to support his mother. His earnings averaged about six dollars per 
month, five dollars of which were given to his mother. 

At seventeen he began an active business career. He undertook 
a contract to dig a trench for laying pump logs to carry water from 
a brook through Vistula Avenue to the race. He next worked in a 
cooper shop where they turned out eleven barrels a day. While at 
work in this shop he got his own timber and shaved his own staves. 

At the age of twenty-one, he obtained employment at the St. 
Joseph Iron Works at Mishawaka, where he thoroughly learned the 
foundry business. This foundry was not entirely to Mr. Oliver's 
liking. For this reason he decided to seek employment elsewhere. 
He decided to go to Goshen. To go there he walked to South Bend 
to take the train. While waiting at the station he met a Mr. Lamb 
who was interested in a small foundry business. Mr. Lamb proposed 
to Mr. Oliver that he go in business with him. After considering the 
question Mr. Oliver decided to purchase an interest in the business. 
This was Mr. Oliver's first business venture in South Bend and from 
that humble beginning the great establishment of the present day 
has grown. It was located on the site of the Oliver Water Power 
Plant on Mill Street. 

In a few years Mr. Oliver bought the entire stock and soon after 
was given the contract for supplying the iron columns, sills and caps 
for the St. Joseph Hotel, which was located where the Oliver Hotel 
now stands. 


The invention of chilled metal marked the turning point in the 
Oliver fortunes. Do you know what chilled iron is? 

Chilled iron is a very hard metal which withstands better than 
any other metal the scratching of sand and other hard substances 
in the soil. The moulders pour the melted iron into moulds com- 
prised of a hollow metal retainer on the underside and sand on the 
top. The space between the top, or cope, and the under part, or the 
chill, is hollow and the shape of the mouldboard, or other part to be 
made. Steam or hot water is turned into the hollow retainers so 
as to warm them thoroughly before the molten iron is poured. The 
iron being much hotter than the chill changes the form of crystal- 
lization of the metal so that the iron crystallizes crosswise of the 
length of the board. 

(See samples of chilled iron.) 

There were many difficulties encountered in making a board of 
this character. Mr. Oliver worked for twelve years before he suc- 
ceeded in making a plow that was satisfactory to him. This patient, 
untiring energy on the part of Mr. Oliver was ridiculed by his friends 
and a man with less determination of purpose would have given up, 
but Mr. Oliver stuck to his work. His life is a wonderful example 
for any boy who is easily discouraged. 

At the time Mr. Oliver began his work on the chilled plow there 
had been no satisfactory way for farmers, who have gritty soils, to 
satisfactorily plow them. Much of the wealth that has come to 
farmers with these types of soils can be credited primarily to Mr. 
Oliver's patient work. A farmer must be sure that he has the right 
kind of plow for the soil. Big things always start from little be- 

Even after Mr. Oliver had succeeded in making a successful 
plow, he was obliged to peddle his goods from house to house in 
an ordinary farm wagon drawn by horses. At the start he had great 
difficulty in getting farmers to purchase his plows, but after farmers 
once saw the great value of his plow Mr. Oliver's future was certain. 

Many a man would have given up in despair, even after he had 
made a success of the invention when he found it was going to be 
hard to introduce the article. The same indomitable will that char- 
acterized his long endeavor kept him from giving up when he saw 
it would be difficult to induce farmers to use his plow. 

This formative period of the Oliver Chilled Plow Works is a 
bright and shining example of what young man can do if he sets 
about doing something useful and making a success of it. That old 
adage, "nothing worth while comes easy" is vividly illustrated in 
the early history of this great Plow Works. 


Mr. James Oliver died March 2, 1908, leaving the plow business 
under the efficient management of his son, J. D. Oliver, and family. 

It has always been the policy of the Oliver Chilled Plow Works 
to spend its efforts in improving its implements to lessen farm labor 
and make farms more productive. 

The Oliver Chilled Plow Works has grown to such proportions 
that the plant occupies over a hundred acres and is equipped with 
the most modern machinery for building farm implements that 
inventive genius can devise. It takes but a few moments to bend a 
plow beam. W r ere it not for these conveniences of manufacture 
farmers would be obliged to pay many times the price that they 
now pay for their plows. 

The plow is the iirst implement used in preparing the ground 
for growing plants. It is the foundation upon which the crop 
depends. It bears the same relation to the growing of plants that 
the foundation does to a house. Unless the foundation is well laid 
the most beautiful house settles out of shape. 

The value of a manufacturing establishment that makes such 
necessary tools as plows is seldom measured in its true worth by 
any class of people except those who use them. The city of South 
Bend has become world famed through the distribution of Oliver 
Chilled plows. 

For this reason whenever a resident of South Bend goes any 
place in the world his town is immediately known by the reputation 
acquired on account of the necessary implements of agriculture 
made by the Oliver Chilled Plow Works. The sun never sets on 
Oliver Chilled Plows or the name of the city where they are made. 

This plant gives permanent employment to several thousand 
men and when the new plant now being built is ready for occupancy 
many more men will be needed. 

This is a bright outlook for the young men, particularly the 
growing boys of South Bend because it will give them an oppor- 
tunity to find employment without leaving their home town. 

Mr. Joseph D. Oliver, the President, states that the Oliver plant 
needs particularly men and boys who have suilicient schooling to 
make them think and act for themselves in the various operations of 
building and distributing of the Oliver product. This is an incentive 
for every boy in South Bend to strive for all the learning he can 
possibly secure while he is in the public schools. 

Oliver Hotel and Opera House are memorials to the name of 
Oliver. Oliver School is located on land originally a part of the 
Oliver farm. 



1. A set of slides showing the operations of the manufacture 
of the Oliver plow. 

2. Moving picture film showing the plow turning the soil (re- 
lating to the saving of moisture). 

3. Slides showing seed bed preparation. 

4. Samples of chilled metal. 


The Birdsell Clover Huller was invented and perfected by John 
Comly Birdsell, Sr., while he was engaged in farming in the state of 
New York. 

New York is a great clover country, and Mr. Birdsell saw the 
waste of seed when threshed by the old method. This set him to 
thinking and the invention in 1855 of the clover huller was the 

In 1864, he came to South Bend, and began their manufacture. 
With the assistance of his sons, (Joseph B., Byron A., Varnum 0., 
and John C.) the industry has grown and developed into an inter- 
national business. 

The clover huller is used in every civilized country in the 

In 1884, the company began the manufacture of farm wagons 
with almost the same success as with the clover huller. 


In 1868 the Singer Sewing Machine Co. of New Jersey, through 
their representative, Mr. Leighton Pine, established a branch of its 
plant in South Bend. 

This place was chosen as a suitable location on account of the 
vast amount of hardwood, such as oak, walnut and maple in the 
vicinity and which were used in making the cabinet work. 

With the assistance of the Hon. William Miller, land on the east 
side of the river was purchased by the Company for a factory site. 
It was necessary to offer a number of inducements to get the factory 
located in South Bend, as Mishawaka was anxious to have the plant 
located at that point. 

This factory, which was established at first for the sole purpose 
of making the cabinets for the machines, soon outgrew its quarters. 


The Company was, therefore, compelled to secure another place to 
build a larger factory. This matter was attended to in due time, a 
tract of land being purchased at Olive and Division Streets in the 
west end of the city, and in 1902 the present extensive buildings 
were completed in which to produce cabinet work to meet the 
greatly increased demand. 

In the new factory a large foundry, japanning and machining 
departments were added for making the castings for the stands used 
on family machines, also castings for the stands used in factories for 
power driven sewing machines. 

In these works are constructed all the cases and elaborate cabi- 
net work of over three-fourths of all the sewing machines in the 
world. The daily output is, consequently, the largest of any manu- 
facturing establishment of its kind. 

Over one-half of this cabinet work is packed in boxes in the 
unfinished state and shipped to the Singer Co.'s European factories, 
the principal one being in Scotland, where the final staining and 
varnishing operations are completed. There are about 15,000 work- 
ers in the Scotland plant. 

Part of the finished cabinets are shipped to the factory in New 
Jersey, where the sewing machines are mounted and crated; and in 
turn sewing machines from the factory in New Jersey are shipped 
to South Bend, where they are assembled to cabinet work and stands 
and crated for shipment throughout the United States, also carefully 
packed in boxes for shipment to China, Japan and the Philippine 

Interesting facts in connection with the Singer Co. and the 
South Bend plant are given below: 

Number of employees about 3,000. 

Total ground space 70 acres. 

Total floor area of buildings 1,350,000 sq. ft. 

Total length of buildings, if they were placed end to end 8,040 
ft. (over 1 % miles). 

Total length of floors, if they were placed end to end 19,620 ft. 
(over 3Va miles). 

Railroad track inside of grounds 5 miles. 

Power plant Two 4,000 horsepower Turbine Electric Genera- 
tors; one 400 horsepower Turbine Electric Generators; one 100 
horsepower Turbine Electric Generator; six 250 horsepower Boilers. 

There are 27 kilns for drying lumber, having a total capacity of 
about 2,000,000 ft. of lumber at one time. 

750,000 ft. of the finest hardwood lumber is used each week in 
making cabinet work. 


Present yearly output, over 2,000,000 sets of cabinets. 

There are over 600 varieties of sewing machines made by the 
Singer Co., sewing everything from the finest art embroidery to sail 
cloth and harness. 

The products of the Singer Sewing Machine Co. are known and 
distributed not only throughout every civilized nation of the world, 
but also the Land of the Midnight Sun, the jungles of India, the 
islands of the seas, the deserts of Africa, and the ancient land of the 

Samples of seven varieties of woods, (in finished and unfinished 
condition) used in the manufacture of Singer Sewing Machines may 
be drawn from the Supt.'s office. These have been furnished by the 


The O'Brien Varnish Company was established in 1878. Mr. 
Patrick O'Brien was the sole owner. Later, his sons, Mr. W. D. 
O'Brien and Mr. George O'Brien were taken into partnership and are 
continuing the very successful business. 

Varnishes, oils, enamels, stains, flat-wall finishing and all ma- 
terials for paints are made and shipped to all parts of the United 


The South Bend Toy Factory was established in 1874, with John 
W. Teel as President, and Frederick I. Badet, Secretary and Treas- 
urer. Mr. Badet later bought Mr. Teel's share and holds a controll- 
ing interest. 

At that time, croquet was a very fashionable game, and the only 
game that could be played by respectable women and girls. Tennis 
and golf were not considered proper for women and girls at that 

Croquet balls and mallets were the chief article of manufacture 
in the early days of this company. Later, children's wagons were 
manufactured, followed by baseball bats, wheel-barrows, go-carts, 
game-boards, little chairs and rocking horses. 

A band saw is used to cut the boards into all kinds of shapes 
for use in the various toys. Several boards are clamped together, 
the pattern being drawn on the top board. A man guides the saw 
around the pattern of a chair bottom, horse or whatever is being 


After the chairs are made up, they are given their first coat of 
paint. How do you suppose this is done? The chairs are let down 
by a pulley into a great vat of paint. When they are completely 
covered with paint, they are drawn out of the vat, and placed on a 
rack to drain and dry. 

Rocking-horses, after their first coat of paint has dried, are run 
through large printing presses, which print the saddles, and bridles 
on them. 

Everything that is made at this factory is very interesting to 
boys and girls. 

Styles in toys and games change like the styles in other things; 
and the Toy Factory aims to keep up to date. 

These works are widely known in the commercial and manu- 
facturing world and the trade of the company extends throughout 
the United States and Europe. 

This is the largest Toy Factory of its kind in the world. 


One of our newer industries is the making of watches. 

The Watch Company was organized in 1903 by a group of South 
Bend men. Clement Studebaker, Jr., was its first president and up 
to the present time (1920) is still serving in that capacity. 

This was the first watch factory ever started in Indiana. 

The South Bend watch is known wherever watches are sold as 
"The Watch with the Purple Ribbon," and the name "South Bend" 
on the purple ribbon is stretched across the dial. This helps to 
advertize South Bend to the outside world. 

This company manufactures three styles of watches. The rail- 
road watch is recognized as standard on every railroad system. 

During the World War, the United States government purchased 
many South Bend watches for use as comparing watches on board 
its ships. 

The company has a large modern factory and offices on Mish- 
awaka Avenue. The buildings are noted for their airiness, pleasant 
surroundings and generally ideal conditions for workers. 

At the present time more than six hundred and fifty (650) peo- 
ple are enployed. 

Each year the manufacture and sale of the watches has in- 

Every watch sold helps to make the city of South Bend, for 
which each watch is named, better known all over the world. 



The first school in South Bend was built on the northeast corner 
of Washington and William Streets, on the site of the present High 
School. It was called the County Seminary. 

The land was purchased from Alexis Coquillard in 1841, for 
one hundred fifty-eight dollars ($158.00). Could you buy it for that 
sum now? 

In 1845, the newspaper described the building as being situated 
"west of town." Why did they say that? This first school con- 
tained two rooms, one above and one below. This same paper 
stated that it was large enough to "hold all the children for many 
years to come." 

The first principal was Mr. Wheeler, a graduate of Indiana 

In 1851, the state decided to abandon the county seminaries. 
They ordered the property sold and the proceeds turned over to the 
public school fund. 

In 1853, the seminary was turned over to the Board of Town 
Trustees, composed of Dwight Deming, Almond Bugbee, and Charles 
A. Evans. 

After this date the name seminary was not used but instead 
the name High School took its place. 

1870 the school had increased in numbers to such an extent that 
it was necessary to begin planning for a larger building. 

In 1872 the old seminary was torn down, and a new school 
built, which was finished in 1873. 

Soon the need for a building to house the grammar grades was 
felt and a large brick building was constructed on Colfax Avenue. 
This was used by the High School until 1913, when the present 
High School building was completed. 

This High School building is very modern, having gymnasiums, 
swimming pools, auditoriums, laboratories, domestic science rooms, 
music rooms and a "Little Theatre." 


The building vacated by the High School is now occupied by 
the Junior High School. 

The old building on Washington Street has been torn down, and 
the grounds beautified. 

In 1831, the first Grade School in town was built on the site 
of the present School Administration Building. Mr. Henry Stull 
donated the poplar trees from his farm south of town. 

The building was constructed of the round logs and was 20x30 
feet in dimension. There was a huge fire-place, and two windows, 
but no door was placed in the doorway the first season. 

They held a summer session in those days. There were not 
enough children in town to fill the room, so they went out along 
all the roads for two miles and urged the children to come to school. 
There were no free public schools in those days. Each child paid 
a certain amount for the privilege of attending school. 

The children sat on benches with no backs on them and there 
were no desks. There were shelves along the side of the room for 

Elisha Egbert was the first teacher; from whom do you sup- 
pose he received his pay? 

At this first school, there were children from the families of 
Navarre, Comparet, Coquillard, Johnson, Stanfield, Stull, Rohrer, 
Dayton and many others. These families have done a great deal for 
the prosperity and growth of South Bend. 


Today we have eighteen large grade buildings, the newer ones 
containing up-to-date equipment, such as gymnasiums, auditoriums, 
shower baths, domestic science and manual training rooms, print- 
ing shops and fresh air rooms. 

Plans are being made for several large buildings to be built in 
the districts where the schools are over-crowded. 

The Vocational Department of the city schools is very complete. 
Printing, machine, forge, lathe and automobile repair shops are con- 
ducted on a large scale. These classes are attended not only by 
the High School boys, but boys from the factories come into the 
classes and do part-time work. 

Men and women from the factories, offices and homes attend 
the night classes. There is no charge for instruction in any of 
these Vocational Courses. 



In 1829 Father Stephen Badin came to this vicinity, built a log 
chapel, and dedicated it to the interest of education. This was the 
beginning of Notre Dame University. Father Badin was the first 
priest ordained in the United States. 

In 1842, Father Sorin, then a young man twenty-eight years 
old, left his country of France and came to America. From the 
moment Father Sorin landed on our shores, he ceased to be a for- 
eigner. At once he was an American, heart and soul. 

Soon after his arrival in this community, he began his religious 
as well as educational duties. He was not only local superior for 
the community, but president of the University, which office he 
held until 1865. 

He fully believed that he could convert all the surrounding 
people, and worked zealously at all times toward that great end. 

In 1849, Notre Dame graduated her first student, Neal H. Gilles- 
pie, afterwards Father Gillespie (a cousin of James Gillespie Blaine). 

The first students came up the river from Lake Michigan or 
by stage and wagon road. After the coming of the railroad in 1851, 
the enrollment increased steadily. 

Schuyler Colfax was a great friend of Father Sorin. He often 
made speeches to the students, always leaving impressions for good, 
and inspiring them to great deeds. 

Notre Dame has continued to prosper new buildings have 
taken the place of the early crude log buildings and more land has 
been purchased and improved. Notre Dame stands first among the 
great Catholic Universities of the United States. 

The university, as it stands today, is a lasting tribute to the 
memory of Father Sorin. 

Father Serin's death occurred in October, 1893. 


In 1844, the Sisters of the Holy Cross established their first mis- 
sion in the United States. This was located at Bertrand, Michigan. 

From this mission the sisters were sent out to spread educa- 
tional ideas and the Christian religion among the Indians and white 

The Bishop of Detroit was not in full sympathy with the work, 
so they sought a location near South Bend. 


Here, in 1855, under the personal supervision of Father Sorin, 
St. Mary's was established. Their first home was a crude frame 
house, only one room of which was plastered. 

St. Mary's is located on a beautiful bluff, overlooking the St. 
Joseph river. 

During the Civil and Spanish Wars and also during the late 
World War, the good sisters gave their untiring services whenever 

From its humble beginning, St. Mary's Academy has grown and 
prospered until today it has no superior among Catholic educational 
institutions for women and girls. 

The aims of the institution have always been most modern and 
progressive. Without doubt, the St. Mary's of the future will keep 
pace with the requirements of the times. 

"The Public Library is an integral part of public education." 


Public libraries are today a necessity to an enlightened com- 

In 1872, some of our public-spirited men realized the need for 
a public library. Books and money were contributed and the 
first library established in the back room of a store on Michigan 

They soon outgrew these quarters and moved over on Wash- 
ington Street, in the third story of a building. Soon after a fire 
destroyed all the books and the library practically went out of 

In 1880, South Bend and a number of other cities sent in a 
petition to the legislature, requesting authority to establish a free 
public library, to be maintained by taxes. This law was passed in 

In 1888 the library was established, though they had neither 
room, books nor money. You see the money could not be had until 
the next year. 

Mr. James Oliver came to the rescue and fitted up a room on 
the fourth floor of the Oliver Opera House building and loaned the 
necessary money. The Singer Manufacturing Company furnished 
the chairs. Other equipment was supplied and the library was 
opened to the public. 

In 1895, there was great need for larger rooms, so ground was 


purchased at the corner of Main and Wayne Streets, and the present 
library was built. 

This library maintains the Washington Branch library on West 
Sample Street, and the River Park Branch on Mishawaka Avenue. 
There are also deposit stations in three factories, and school-room 
libraries are in nine of the out-lying districts. 

There is a children's library and reading room on the second 
floor of the building. The main floor contains the circulating 
library and a reading room where all the best magazines and current 
newspapers are placed for the use of the public. 

The Public Library is the one municipal institution supported 
solely by the people. It is the continuation school of the people. 



Many tracts of land have been given to the city by our public 
spirited citizens. 

These parks are taken care of by a Board of Park Commis- 

Drives, walks, playgrounds, benches and drinking fountains 
have been placed in the parks for the benefit and pleasure of our 

Band concerts are given in a number of the parks during the 
warm season. 

Skilled landscape gardeners have made the grounds attractive 
with trees, shrubs, and flowers. 


Not until 1878 was any thought given to the need of public 

The first land considered was a city dumping ground on the 
east side of the river near the Jefferson Street Bridge. 

In 1889 Alexis Coquillard, a nephew of the pioneer trader, 
donated four lots on the east bank. Other land was donated or 
bought for a small consideration. This land has been improved 
and beautified with trees, walks and drives; tennis courts have been 
added for recreation. 

In 1894, the name Howard Park was officially given to this 
ground, in honor of Judge Timothy Howard, who had been instru- 
mental in saving it for park purposes. 

In 1906 Mr. J. M. Studebaker presented the park with a beautiful 
electric fountain and Calvert H. Defrees gave a bronze drinking 

In 1895, the city purchased a large tract of land for the use of 


the waterworks department. The pumping station was built and 
the artesian wells sunk and capped over. This left the greater 
part of the tract available for park purposes. 

The park was named in honor of David R. Leeper, a life-long 
resident and honored citizen. 

In 1904 land from Michigan Street to Lafayette Boulevard was 
added to the park. 

Playgrounds and tennis courts for the boys and girls of our 
city have been constructed. 

A beautiful drinking fountain has been placed in the park in 
memory of one of our worthy citizens, Mr. Almond Bugbee. 


LaSalle Park on the east side of the river near the Sample 
Street bridge when filled in and improved will be one of our beauty 
spots along the river. 


Studebaker Park in the south-east part of the city was named 
for Henry Studebaker, one of the five brothers who came here at 
an early day. 


Kaley Park is in the south-western part of our city. A wading 
pool has been installed for the pleasure of the little folks. Benches, 
shrubs, and flowers make it a delightful place for the residents of 
our crowded districts. 


Pottawattomie Park is the largest pleasure ground in the city. 
There are sixty acres, forty acres of which used to be the old 
County Fair grounds. The name was given it in memory of the 
old tribe of red men who occupied this territory many, many moons 

Pottawattomie Park is a favorite picnic ground for old and 
young. It is located on Mishawaka Avenue mid-way between Mish- 
awaka and South Bend. 

(See story of "O Sah la mo nee") 



Coquillard Park is a large tract of land in the north eastern 
park of the city, near the Perley School. It was given to the city 
by the Coquillard heirs. It contains about ten acres and is a very 
beautiful site for a public park. 

Other small parks under the supervision of the Park Board are 
Shetterly Park on Riverside Drive, near Leland Avenue; Riverside 
Park, farther down the river, near Hudson; Ravina and Krighbaum, 
in the southeast part of the city; the last three are still in the course 
of construction. 


Springbrook Park is an amusement park located on the south 
side of the river between Mishawaka and South Bend. It is owned 
and managed by the Chicago, South Bend and Northern Indiana 
Railway Company. There are many attractions and amusements 
to interest the throngs of visitors each summer season. 


What a change! Where log cabins and wigwams once stood, 
now stand churches, homes and factories; where they walked or 
rode in single file, now locomotives scream like beasts of prey, 
and rush along their iron tracks; wide paved roadways extend in 
all directions through the city and connect us with other cities. 
Automobiles and aeroplanes carry our people to all parts of the 



Corrected as far as possible to November 15, 1920. 

The Editor should be notified of any error or of later statistics. 

South Bend is located eighty-six miles east of Chicago at a point 
where the St. Joseph River, one of the most picturesque streams in 
America, flowing down from Michigan, makes its "south bend" and 
turns northward to the great lakes. It is the County seat of St. 
Joseph County as well as its largest city. 

Altitude: 722 feet. 

Area: (City proper) 15.74 square miles. 

Birth Rate: 18.64 per 1,000. 

Building Operations: More than 600 houses erected during sum- 
mer of 1919. Oliver Chilled Plow Works to build 1,000; Studebaker 
Corporation, 1,500 in immediate future. 

Churches: 63, several missions, all leading denominations. 

City Library: Nearly 52,000 accessioned volumes, with a circu- 
lation of 232,689 during the last year. 

Clubs: Country Club with buildings and golf course, Indiana 
Club, Knife and Fork Club, Rotary Club, University Club, Federated 
Women's Clubs and Fraternal Organizations, Y. M. C. A., Y. W. C. 
A., Kiwanis Club, Commercial Athletic Club, Chamber of Commerce, 
Advertising Club, Press Club, and Engineers' Club. 

Death Rate: 9:89 per 1,000. 

Education: 18 grade public schools, $450,000 High School, 
vocational school, 12 parochial schools, 3 business colleges, free 
night schools, with Notre Dame University and St. Mary's Academy 
two miles north of the city. 

Financial Institutions: 10 banks and trust companies, with total 
deposits of $21,667,155.34, total capital stock, $1,661,700; total sur- 
plus and undivided profits, $1,575,317.07, and total clearings for 
1919, $81,770,275.00. 

Hospitals: 2 hospitals, County Infirmary, Orphans' Home. 

Hotels: Oliver 245 rooms; Jefferson 120 rooms; nine smaller 

Industries: Over 200 distinct products are turned out by 250 
establishments, involving $70,180,000 invested capital, with annual 
wages of $31,072,000, and producing annually $75,180,000 in manu- 
factured goods. 


Newspapers: News-Times morning, evening and Sunday; cir- 
culation, daily, 17,000; Tribune evening, circulation 17,500. 

Population: 70,983 (1920 Census). 

Power, Light and Gas: St. Joseph River developing 25,000 
hydro-electric horse-power from four dams in this vicinity, most 
of this power available for South Bend. Power rate $1.00 per 
month per horse-power attached, and to 6c per kwh. Rate for 
commercial lighti-ng 3M>c to 8M>c per kwh. Rate for residence 
lighting, 4c to 8%c per kwh. Gas rates range from 83c to $1.08 
per 1,000 cu. ft. according to the amount consumed. 

Parks and Playgrounds: Ten parks with an acreage of 366. Ten 
playgrounds under direction of Municipal Recreation Committee 
with 19 instructors and directors. 

Public Safety: Fire Department, 9 stations, 67 men, auto and 
horse equipment. Police department, 65 men and one police- 
woman, two men in Health Department, Superintendent of police 
and fire alarms, humane officer, police ambulance, auto patrols and 
motorcycle squad. 

Streets: Total length of streets, alleys and avenues in, city 

limits, 219.38 miles; total length of street pavement, 86.3 miles; 

lighted by 1501 public lights; main streets illuminated by boule- 
vard cluster lights. 

Tax rate: $1.50 per hundred, covers city, county, school and 
state. Assessment basis, 100%. 

Telephone: Indiana Bell manual exchange; 6,800 stations; 
average calls per day, 44,000; long distance calls per day, 1,000. 
Direct connection with New York, Chicago, San Francisco and inter- 
mediate points. Automatic exchange, 4,200 stations connected with 
6 exchanges, total average calls per day, 40,000. 

Theaters: Oliver Opera House, plays best road companies and 
occasional high class movies; Orpheum, Keith Circuit vaudeville; 
several motion picture houses. 

Transportation: 7 steam roads; Lake Shore and Michigan 
Southern; Grand Trunk; Michigan Central; Pennsylvania (Van- 
dalia); Chicago, Indiana and Southern; New Jersey, Indiana and 
Illinois; Lake Erie and Western, entering the city from Indianapolis 
over the tracks of the C. I. & S. Electric lines; Chicago, South Bend 
and Northern Indiana; Chicago, Lake Shore and South Bend; 
Southern Michigan. These lines provide service between this city, 
Chicago, and Indianapolis, and important points on the shore of 
Lake Michigan. Steam and electric roads provide 180 trains daily, 


90 in and 90 out. Exceptional freight facilities over main trunk 
and division lines connecting with practically every road centering 
in the Chicago district. 


New York 

St. Paul 

Missouri River 


Common Points 3.02 2.56% 2.09% 1.88% 1.44 

Pacific Coast 

Terminals 5.83 5.05% 4.20 1.97% 

Water Supply: The city's water supply is drawn from about 100 
artesian wells; plant valuation $1,800,000. Normal pumping capacity 
for 24 hours, 24,000,000 gallons. South Bend drinks and puts out 
fires with pure, cold, sparkling water that is the envy of less for- 
tunate cities. 













1 .82 




Teacher's Notes 

Teacher's Notes 


Los Angeles 
is book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 

. N 

AUG 1 3 1956 


Form L9-50m-7,'54 (5990) 444 


AA 000018968 8 

55738 The story of